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Expressly for the use of those 

who desire to acquire a rapid 

and sound colloquial knowledge 

of the Chinese language 





. J. WHYMANT 



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COLLOQUIAL 

CHINESE 



(NORTHERN) 



By 
A. NEVILLE J. WHYMANT 

Lecturer in Chinese and Japanese, School oj Oriental Studies, 
University of London ; Sometime Sir John Francis Davis 
Chinese Scholar, University of Oxford ; Author of Chinese 
Coolie Songs, etc., etc. 



LONDON : 
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH. TRUBNER & CO., LTD., 
NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON & CO. 

1922 



Uniform with this Volume 

Colloquial French 
Colloquial German 
Colloquial Spanish 
Colloquial Japanese 

London : 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner 

& Co., Ltd. 



NOTE TO THE READER 

The following pages form really a sort of note-book of 
the Chinese language. There is no pretension to erudition. 
Simply has the writer found during some years of teaching 
experience in the two most difficult languages in the world 
that the student must from the start rely upon himself. 
If he would make real and sensible progress, he must make 
his own exercises from the raw material provided in the 
notes on construction and the vocabulary. For this reason 
exercises herein will be few and will serve as models for 
those of the student's own making. 

Should the learner feel that he stands in need of further 
practice with regard to exercises, he can make his choice 
from many excellent manuals easily procurable. The 
object in view throughout has been rather to eliminate 
matter than to assemble between two covers all that is 
known of the tongue. 



PREFACE 

There is an idea generally prevalent that only the genius 
with a lifetime of leisure can afford to devote himself to 
the study of the Chinese language. It is, however, a 
matter of experience that while the Written Style is un- 
doubtedly the most difficult study in the world — so difficult, 
indeed, that no European has so far succeeded in producing 
a composition therein which could earn the approbation 
of a native — yet the Colloquial Style may be learned by 
any one with ordinary acumen and perseverance in the 
same period that one devotes to the study of the elementary 
Latin, Greek, or French Classics. 

Naturally, the genius of this tongue being totally different 
from that of English, many students invest their task with 
exaggerated difficulties and with bogies of all descriptions. 
At the outset the peculiar script used scares the would-be 
sinologue. The seemingly-endless lists of characters with 
the same sound and tone — the utter dissimilarity of 
Chinese, by virtue of which it stands in a class by itself 
from among all other languages, the peculiar rhythmic 
stress of each sentence as it slips from the tongue of a 
Celestial, the absolute precision of utterance demanded in 
order that one should be understood, all seem to be insur- 
mountable obstacles in the path of the beginner. Let him, 
however, take comfort from this fact ; that many men of 
ordinary ability who found it impossible to acquire even 
the slightest knowledge of the written tongue have been 
fluent speakers of the colloquial. 

The object of this work is to crystallise the writer's 
teaching experience toward the end that the acquisition 
of Chinese Colloquial may lose many of its terrors. .In its 
preparation, use has been made of the following works : — 

Tzu Erh Chi. Sir T. Wade. Student's Four Thousand Tzu. 

Gramm. d. I. Langue Chin. Paul W. E. Soothill. 

Perny (Tome premier, Langue Mandarin Lessons. Mateer. 

Orale). Systema Phonet. Script. Sin. M 

The Chinese Language and How Gallery. 

to Learn It. Sir W. Hillier. La Lingua Cinese Parlata. F. 

Eng.-Chin. Diet, of Peking Magnasco. 

Colloquial. Sir W. Hillier. Chinesische Grammatik. Seidel. 

Chin.-Eng. Diet. Prof. H. A. Notitia Ling. Sinicae. Le Pfere 

Giles. Premare. 



PREFACE 

Guide d. I. Conversa. Franc- Syntaxe Nouv. d. I. Langue 
Angl.-Chin. Le Pere Couv- Chinoise. Stanislas Julien. 
reur, S.J. Colloquial Japanese. Dr. W. 

Pocket Chin.-Eng. Die. C. Goodrich. M. McGovern. 

The written character is understood throughout the 
eighteen provinces and in other parts of the Chinese Empire 
beyond such well-defined limits. There are, however, 
many colloquial variations, differing so widely from each 
other that it is no exaggeration to proclaim them distinct 
languages. A Northener, attempting to make himself 
understood purely by means of the Colloquial among 
Southern Chinese, would encounter the same difficulty 
as a Briton, knowing nothing but his mother-tongue, 
in the heart of Russia. This fact notwithstanding, 
Pekingese, or rather the tongue erroneously but generally 
known as Mandarin, is the lingua franca of the whole of 
the Northern provinces, and with but slight variations, 
of those of Mid-China. The substitution of " K " for 
initial " CH," and " TS," for initial " CH," are indications 
of the change which takes place. It is for this reason that 
the dialect of the North is that generally taught, as its 
sphere of utility is much larger than that of any other 
of the Indo-Chinese languages. 

I have to express my gratitude to my colleague. Dr. W. 
Montgomery McGovem, for permission to use some of the 
vocabularies in his Colloquial Japanese as a framework 
for several similar word-lists in the following pages, and 
my very best thanks are due to the Director of the Sc hool 
of Oriental Studies, Sir E. Denison Ross, for valued sug- 
gestions made during the preparation of the work. Very 
specially have I to thank the Rev. Hopkyn Rees, D.D., 
Reader in Chinese in the University of London, for the 
very valuable and expert help he has given me. On the 
eve of my departure for China, I had the load of proof- 
reading lifted from my shoulders by reason of his generosity. 
He has helped in other directions also, these latter too 
numerous to mention. 

A. Neville J. Whymant. 

School of Oriental Studies, 
{London Institution), 

University of London. 



CONTENTS 



Preface 

1. The History and Morphology of the Chinese 

Language 

2. General Principles 

3. Varieties of Chinese 

4. Examination of Styles of Writing 

Sound Table 

Lesson 1 : The Simple vSentence .. 



Position of Negatives 
Numerals and Adjectives 
Pronouns and Exercises 



English and Chinese Vocabulary . . 



1 
5 

12 
13 
14 
33 

40 
51 
58 
61 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



1. — The History and Morphology of the Chinese 
Language. 

There has been current for a long time past a widespread 
behef that Chinese stands in the same relation to Japanese 
as does English to French or English to German. No doubt 
this idea was bom and fostered by the propinquity of the 
two Far-Eastern nations. Radically, however, the two 
languages are as far apart as the Poles. Japanese came 
from the South, a language colloquially expressive and with 
a strongly developed agglutinative tendency, but innocent 
of any script. The Chinese, however, had not only an 
artistic system of writing, but also a comprehensive litera- 
ture. The newly-arrived tenants of the Land of the Rising 
Sun immediately borrowed the ideographic scheme of their 
Western neighbours and began the laborious task of fitting 
it to their own polysyllabic speech. 

Thus arose one of the most peculiar of popular delusions 
for Chinese is essentially monosyllabic. By the invention 
and frequent use of written equivalents of the colloquial 
particles, however, the Japanese overcame what must have 
seemed at first a supreme difficulty. 

So far as can be gathered from the materials at our dis- 
posal, it appears that though the essentials of Chinese have 
varied but little in the course of millenia of progress, yet 



2 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

in some few respects the colloquial of the present day differs 
sufficiently from that of the time of Confucius some twenty- 
five centuries ago, for it to be definitely assumed that 
scholars of that period would encounter the same difficulty 
to-day as would Demosthenes were he to return to modem 
Athens. In regard to Mandarin, the chief change is the 
loss of the finals, k, p and t, which are still preserved in 
modern Cantonese. It is for this reason that the language 
of the South bears a s ':ronger resemblance to the old classical 
tongue than does Mandarin, 

Dr. Edkins, in his paper (printed in the Transactions of 
the Peking Oriental Society), on the Development of the 
Chinese Language, examines, from a physiological stand- 
point, the production of sounds among primitive people. 
Starting with the production by a newly-born child, of the 
simple sound "A," short or long-drawn-out, he proceeds 
to show that the paucity of different sounds in Chinese is a 
natural companion of the early efforts of a primitive people 
towards enunciation. Hence the origin of speech among 
the Chinese must belong to a date more ancient than any 
we can conceive, or of which our histories can give even an 
idea. 

It may be asked : But why have not the Chinese in their 
long history simplified and enlarged the scope of their 
tongue ? Surely a matter of four hundred or so vocables is 
a poor stock-in-trade for a language of the richness and 
precision of Chinese ? The answer to such questions is 
found in the Chinese temperament. A Chinese is naturally 
conservative, and the more highly-educated he becomes 
the more pronounced is his conservatism. The aspirant 
to honours in a Chinese University to-day must be thro- 
oughly well-versed in the Chinese Classics, and also must 
show in his essays the same style of construction as was in 



HISTORY AND MORPHOLOGY 3 

vogue three thousand years ago. Is it not conceivable that 
the vehicle of speech which has served them so well for 
every occasion over such a long period of time should be 
retained in practically an unchanged form, as a treasure in- 
herited from high antiquity ? And even so it is. There is 
no race under the sun in which pride in the mother-tongue 
is so deeply rooted. The Chinese glories in his native 
speech and venerates the written character. All foreign 
tongues are little better than gibberish — Chinese is a grace- 
ful and polished exemplar of hnguistic perfection. 
The outstanding features of Chinese are as follows : — 

(a) It is purely monosyllabic. Even a word like 
Chiang, which appears to us to be a disyllabic, is to a 
Chinese ear merely a monosyllable, being pronounced 
almost Jyang. 

{h) It has no alphabet. In place of the abecedaire of 
Western tongues, it has a Radical Index of 214 Radicals, 
two or more of which enter into the composition of every 
compound Chinese character. More will be said of the 
Radicals in a later chapter. 

(c) In its written form Chinese runs in parallel columns 
from top to bottom and from right to left of the page. 

[d) Grammar, as it is understood in other languages, 
is absent from Chinese. There are no articles ; nouns 
have no gender (saving the natural divisions), nor de- 
clension, verbs are not conjugated, and pronouns or pre- 
positions are used as sparingly as possible. A word may 
indifferently be used as a noun, a verb, an adjective or 
adverb, without undergoing any greater change than 
removal to another part of the sentence. In fact, 
position in the sentence is the one law governing Chinese 
construction, or, as it has been expressed by the pioneer 
Marshman : " The whole of Chinese grammar depends 



4 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE. 

upon position." Often the context alone is the means 
whereby a correct translation can be made of a given 
passage. To those wearied by the complex grammatical 
systems of Sanskrit, Russian, Classical Arabic or Japanese, 
this absence of grammar may seem to be welcome, but 
unless the rules of position are properly learned and 
applied, the student will not only fail to speak Chinese 
fluently, but will speak English-Chinese (which would 
merely be sinicised pidgin-English), instead of Chinese- 
Chinese, and will fall into the most ludicrous and em- 
barrassing errors, 

(e) Although Chinese syntax is practically the same 
as in English — the construction of even the commonest 
phrases differs widely from the expressions which the 
same set of circumstances would call forth from a 
Westerner. More than ever in this tongue is it necessary 
to acquire the native point of view. For example : in 
demanding silence a Chinese would say : Pu yao shuo- 
hua, lit. — " not want speech," rather than use the im- 
perative positive construction, " Be quiet." The 
Chinese stylist is enamoured of the negative mood. 

(/) Chinese, like Malay, Burmese, Annamese and 

Siamese, encourages the terse, pithy sentence, almost 

ejaculatory in its force in preference to the long, vague 

and loose-flowing sentences of Japanese and some other 

Oriental tongues. Frequently a sentence (like the 

characters), merely paints an idea on the consciousness, 

leaving the intelligence free to supply its own verbiage. 

Enough has been said to show the broad distinctions 

that exist between this anomaly among systems of human 

speech and linguistics generally. Later the more detailed 

distinctions will be elaborated. No unnecessary rules will 

be introduced : the student should therefore note that 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES 6 

such as appear herein should be thoroughly learned and 
practised. 

2. — General Principles. 

If we may take as a definition of the expression " general 
principles," those underlying essentials upon which the 
fabric of a language is built, then this section may naturally 
fall into the following divisions : — 

(a) Mode of Study. 

{b) Use of Words. 

(c) Translations from the Language. 

(d) Translation into the Language. 
(«) Varieties of Sentence. 

(/) Differences of Style. 
(g) Notes on Prosody, 

(a). — First, as to Mode of Study. — It must be reahsed 
from the outset that to study Chinese in the same way as one 
would attempt to master any other tongue would be but to 
court failure. It is no less than the truth to state in the 
first place that a psychological analysis of the Chinese mind 
would reduce the labour of learning by one half, and in the 
second place that a good mimic and one who is not bored 
by incessant repetition of the same thing, will achieve far 
more than the student who overstocks his mind with mono- 
syllables and blunders along in the futile hope that he may 
be able the sooner to express himself easily and before 
thoroughly understanding the rules he is supposed to have 
learned. 

If the assistance of a native can be procured it is, of 
course, eminently desirable to practise with him every word 
and sentence as it is learned. Native teachers are extra- 
ordinarily patient, and they naturally appreciate the diffi- 
culties of their own tongue as experienced by themselves, 



6 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

and, moreover, being of more than usual adaptability, they 
axe quick to detect the pitfalls in the path of the foreigner. 

But for those to whom the above plan is impossible, a 
few words of advice here may be of help : — 
Study well the Sound-Table. 

Speak slowly until you are sure of the correct sounds. 
Emphasise the all-important aspirate. 
Be sure of your tones. 
While learning Chinese, forget your own nationality, 

your own tongue, and copy closely. 

Generally speaking, thorough memorisation and applica- 
tion of the Phonology Section is the most important of all. 

(6). — Use of Words. — It cannot be too strongly impressed 
upon the beginner that the Chinese regard oral language 
purely as a means of communication and not as a subject 
for philological speculation. Hence, one should certainly 
not attempt to force colloquial Chinese into that mould so 
beloved by the grammarian. This strangest of speeches 
has served well the everyday purposes of countless myriads 
of Celestials, and is yet independent of those adventitious 
aids to language study and comprehension to which we have 
so long been accustomed. 

To a Chinese, what is meant by " word " in English may 
be the sound of one character or the connected sounds of 
several characters. Briefly, for " word " understand 
" idea." Supposing a native were to wish to convey to our 
minds the idea, " a book " ; in the written style he would 
simply write the character whose sound is " shu " ; in the 
spoken language he would need to say " i pSn shu." The 
reason for this is that there are so many characters bearing 
the simple sound " shu " that in speech auxiliary words are 
needed to indicate which of these characters is intended. 
More details of these peculiarities will be found in the 
discussion of auxiliaries. 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES 7 

Whereas some simple Chinese sentence may appear to us 
prolix, it is an undoubted fact that, on the whole, our 
speech is more verbose. In Mandarin, omit as frequently 
as possible personal pronouns, verbal particles, relative 
clauses, and, above all, circumlocution. Terseness is not 
only highly esteemed, it is most frequently the royal road 
to understanding. Make sure of your words, perfect your 
idiom from English into Chinese, deduct fifty per cent of 
your verbiage — then speak. 

The only way in which to appreciate this point of view is 
to study carefully some colloquial phrases, dissect them, 
make sure that you see the reason for the presence of every 
word or compound therein, and then repeat them until 
they become to you as real as are their counterparts in 
your mother-tongue. This method will not only give 
your mind some material with which to work, but will 
indeed prepare your memory for the reception and reten- 
tion of others cast in the same mould. A firm base having 
been estabhshed, it is surprising how rapidly the super- 
structure is reared. 

(c). — Translation from the Language. — Undoubtedly the 
thorn in the side of the student of Colloquial is that while 
he may make himself understood by the native he (the 
former), cannot understand what the latter is saying to 
him. The reason for this is twofold. The Chinese, under- 
standing you, assumes that you have some practical 
acquaintance with his language, and promptly proceeds to 
give his answer to your utterance. He is not to know how 
much you do not understand, hence the impasse. He may 
use compounds of which you know nothing. There is, 
naturally, nothing for this but practice, but rapidly one 
will acquire all the idioms and colloquialisms in daily use, 
and later those needed for special occasions. True, there 



8 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

is the great dictionary by MacGillivray, in which one may 
look up a word or phrase in its romanised alphabetical 
order, but it is preferable to ask your Chinese to express 
himself in another way. As a general rule, he will then 
use a simpler mode of speech or by gesture or other means 
convey his meaning. The worst thing of all is to allow 
oneself to become discouraged ; the best to take note of all 
such occasions as that outlined above, 

(d). — Translation into the Language. — As has been before 
remarked, the paramount necessity is to disabuse one's 
mind of preconceived notions as these merely lead to con- 
fusion and misunderstanding. Speak clearly and simply, 
translating your thoughts rather than your actual words. 
Your first efforts at independent sentence-construction may 
be clumsy and forced, but remember that the Chinese is a 
kind critic not given to imdue mirth at the expense of the 
unfortunate foreigner. 

(e). — Varieties of Sentence. — It has been said that 
Chinese colloquial is easy to learn on account of the fact 
that there is but one standard to which it is necessary to 
adhere. This is not strictly true. While it is conceded 
that once having fallen into the style generally in use, one 
may proceed to model all future constructions thereon, yet 
the Chinese are not so lacking in love of variety that they 
themselves find no need for alternative forms of expression. 
It may be found advisable indeed in a long conversation to 
introduce sentences varying from that of four or five 
vocables to that of forty or more. Usually, the Chinese 
prefer short phrases to actual sentences, as suggesting the 
idea to be conveyed is generally enough for ordinary com- 
prehension. 

The rule, for all practical purposes, is — Elimination : 
that is, not only of the obviously unnecessary, but also of 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES 9 

what seems to us to be essential. Never use a verb if your 
meaning is perfectly clear without it. On the other hand, 
when occasion arises for emphasis, the native is tempted to 
overdo it. Thus the student must be prepared for all kinds 
of anomalies in this language, since whatever rules do exist 
seem to be present for the sole purpose of demonstration 
as to the myriad ways in which they may be broken ! 

(J). — Differences of Style. — It has been stated above that 
the Kuan Hua or, as it is generally known, Mandarin, is the 
medium of intercourse throughout the north of China. 
The term is difficult to define owing to its wide application. 
The native term printed above signifies " Official Speech," 
but even this is not sufficient to give an adequate idea of the 
ground covered by the phrase. At the time the words came 
into use they designated that form of the colloquial em- 
ployed by the educated classes of officials employed by the 
State. As by degrees these officials " toned down " some 
of the elegancies of this dialect, so did the classes inter- 
mediate between the Officers of State and the coolie attempt 
to reach the same level of speech as that employed by their 
superiors. Various sections of the population developed 
each their own conception of what the standard tongue 
should be. The result is seen to-day in the existence of the 
following styles : — 

" Coolie Talk." — ^This is the Kuan Hua, mangled and 
battered by the careless tongues of coolies. As coolies were 
for many years the main instrument of communication 
between the various parts of the great Empire, it is readily 
conceived that each would bring from his own particular 
district some item of " patois " and slang to add to the 
general pool. Thus even to the present day coolies from 
widely different parts of the country will be able to under- 
stand each other where more highly educated persons would 



10 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

be at a loss. In addition, the coolies are given to twisting I 
and slurring the simplest sounds even as they are prone to 
do with the more difficult ones. In spite of this, but little 
practice among the natives is necessary to enable a good 
speaker of Mandarin to speak and understand this peculiar 
development of the national speech. 

The Kuan Hua is the ordinary educated means of inter- 
course. 

The Lower Wen-li is frequently used as a spoken style 
as well as a written form by students and aspirants for 
official positions residing in the vicinity of the great Uni- 
versity at Peking. It is merely a modification of the 
Higher Wen-li — i.e., the Easy Written Style. Considera- 
tions of wide distinctions existing between the two countries 
forbid the comparison with anything of a similar nature 
among us. Finally, one may say that to speak the Wen-li 
is considered a sign of rather superior specialised learning. 

{g). — Notes on Prosody. — At first sight it may appear 
strange to see any mention of the art of Poesy in a work on 
Colloquial Chinese. The Chinese are of complex psycho- 
logy. Were the dreams of the average Chinese translated 
into reality, the Celestial Empire would be at once the most 
beautiful, the most powerful, the most envied, and the most 
brilliant in the world. And as the day winds its sultry way 
along, the native, humble or of dignified estate, beguiles the 
sunlit hours with snatches of song or with excerpts from 
the world-old Classic of Poetry, Practical and matter-of- 
fact as he is in matters of business, at heart John Chinaman 
is a dreamer of dreams, a metaphysician and philosopher 
of a high order. He is fond of speaking in riddles and 
parables, and the surest way to his heart is to memorise a 
store of his proverbial dicta and bring them into the 
conversation at every possible juncture. Although until 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES 11 

recently quite neglected (Dr. Taylor Headland's work being 
purely concerned with nursery-rhymes), the song of the 
coolie is a mine whence may be extracted the gems of 
understanding of the nature of this wonderful people. 
Labourers in the fields, coolies carrying heavy loads, 
jinrickshaw men lazing while awaiting a fare, in fact, men 
of every type in China, express their thoughts through the 
medium of verse. 

Chinese poetry has many rules but, generally speaking, 
they are simple and easy of comprehension. The metres 
are many also, but those mostly used are 

(a) Four syllables to the line. 

(b) Seven syllables to the line. 

That classic example, the " San Tzu Ching," or " Three- 
Character Poem," which is the first book to be learned by 
Chinese schoolboys, has three syllables only to the line, but 
such is not a common example. Rhyme is very much 
different from our conception of it, as it is merely necessary 
that the main vowel sound and the tone should be the same 
in two rh5miing syllables for the poem to be perfect. Thus, 
to quote from the above-mentioned work, there is no flaw 
in the following excerpt : — 

Txa' pu^ hsUeh^, If a child does not learn. 
Fei^ so' i*, This is not as it should be. 
y«* pu^ hsiieh', If he does not leam when young. 
Lao' ho* wet*, What will he do when he is old ? 

Here the last word of the second line (pronounced ee), is to 
native ears a correct rhyme with the last word of the fourth 
line (pronounced way). 

A good example of the four-syllable metre is found in 
another Chinese school-book, the " Ch'ien tzu W€n," or 
"Thousand-Character Classic." This remarakble com- 
pilation consists of one thousand different characters, so 
united as to compose a poem outUning data of the mos:^ 

B 



12 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

essential type on all the elementary subjects taught to 
Chinese youth. It thus serve*^ the double purpose of storing 
the mind with a thousand different characters of primary 
importance and of impregnating the young native with 
some idea of the essentials of knowledge. But as this 
properly belongs to the department of the written language, 
we will leave it to be re-discovered by the student at a later 
stage of his labours. 

Poems in the seven-syllable metre abound and metres of 
eight, ten, eleven, and even higher numbers of syllables are 
to be found. The metre of the street-song or coolie-ballad 
is variable, but is chiefly of the following type : — 

/ Srh* san^ ssm* wu^, One, two, three, four, five. 

Wu^ shih^ wu^ shih* Srh* shih^ wu^, Five times five are twenty-five. 

Chung* chung* wo^ ti^ lao^. How heavy is my task. 

Man* man* wo^ ti^ fan*, How long the time to dinner ! 

There is in this example of a coolie song another peculi- 
arity — the second line being susceptible (by tone-change) of 
puns. But these would lose their value by being trans- 
lated and, in any case, the student could at this stage 
hardly benefit by understanding them. In conclusion, it 
may be stated that by studying and examining these 
verses many valuable colloquialisms may be added to one's 
vocabulary. 

3. — Varieties of Chinese. 

The student must be prepared to encounter many varie- 
ties other than those of style in this most difficult of tongues. 
It is no exaggeration to say that there are of Kuan Hua 
no less than five subdivisions, each requiring as much 
definite study as a separate language. These may be sum- 
mariesd thus : — 

1. WSn-li. — Used by Scholars. 



VARIETIES OF CHINESE 13 

2. Kuan Hua Proper. — spoken by the general well- 
educated public and by officials. 

3. Kuan- Hua Patois. — Spoken by the lower class gener- 

ally ; is No. 2 interspersed with localisms and 
replete with slang and slurred pronunciations. 

4. The Classical Written Style. — As extant in the days of 

Confucius, and still the sine qua nan for University 
aspirants. 

5. The Epistolary Style. — Used solely in writing letters, 

etc. 

No. 4 is the most difficult of all, but the first three alone 
concern us in the present work. More will be found later 
on these matters, but for general purposes No. 2 is the 
essential to be attacked. 

4. — Examination of Styles of Writing. 

The question of the antiquity of Chinese writing is a very 
vexed one. Long verbal and calamic wars have been 
waged as to whether it sprang from, or gave birth to, other 
very ancient national scripts, such as the Egyptian Hiero- 
glyphs, the Assyrian Cuneiform or Wedge-writing, etc. 
Some sinologues have placed the historic notice of the 
Chinese written language at about B.C. 2000, while ad- 
mitting at the same time that many centuries must have 
been needed before the first crude symbols could have 
developed into such form as weis at that time in vogue. 
Much native information must unfortunately be discredited 
— the mythological element being too strong. There is, 
however, one undeniable fact to be faced, namely : — That 
the Chinese written language was a very slow gradual pro- 
cess from primitive beginnings. It is recorded that the 
Chinese in the first instance used notched sticks and 
knotted cords (as did the Incas of Peru in their primitive 
state), and that their first efforts in writing were confined to. 



14 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE. 

and later modelled on, their copies or drawings of these ele- 
mentary systems of recording passing events. Some of the 
characters to the present day remind one of pictures of 
notched sticks. 

Having discovered their power to leave a mark, however 
primitive, to represent some circumstance easily recalled 
on later seeing such mark again, the Chinese began to copy 
the forms of visible objects such as sun, moon, tree, bird, 
man, etc., exercising no little ingenuity in cases where 
ambiguity might occur. But all too soon they discovered 
that they had exploited this source to the full without 
having written counterparts for more than a very slight 
fraction of their colloquial vocabulary. Then followed a 
long period of enforced idleness in which little was done 
towards the development of this monumental script. 

Sound Table. 

A . Vowels and Dipthongs. 

A is pronounced as " a " in " father," 

When in the final syllable " an," e.g., " chuan," its 
sound is shortened almost to the " an " of " canny." 

E is pronounced as " e " in " pen " and as " ay " in 
" May." It has the first sound when between " i " 
and " n," — e.g., " chien," " mien " ; the second sound 
when followed by " h," as in " chieh," " mieh," etc. 

£ is pronounced always as " u " in fun — e.g., " fen " is 
sounded exactly as "fun" in English, There is a 
tendency in such words as " erh " to make the sound 
equal to the " ur " of the English word " slur," but 
it will be seen that this is merely a modification of the 
true open sound. In addition it is frequently found 
that a word ending in " n " precedes this final " erh." 



VOWELS AND DIPTHONGS 15 

In such cases the " n ' " is eHded and all the other letters 
run together — e.g., " pan-erh" is pronounced " path," 
men-erh is pronounced " merh," and so on. 
I is pronounced as in " mint ' ' and as in " machine. ' ' The 
first of these sounds is employed before a nasal — e.g., 
" ming," " ting," etc., the second when the " i" is 
the final letter of the word — e.g., " chi," " li," etc. 

O is invariably pronounced as " aw " in " awful." 
Thus the word "wo," the pronoun of the first person 
in Chinese, is pronounced like our word " war," 
without the final " r " sound. Care must be taken 
not to pronounce it otherwise or great confusion will 
result, as will be seen when we consider the diph- 
thongs. 

U is pronounced as " u " in " pull." There is one ex- 
ception to this rule, viz.: — the verb " to be " — " yu," 
which is always pronounced as the first syllable of 
our word "yokel." 

is pronounced as the French " u " in " lune," or the 
German " u " in " suss." 

AI is the sound of the " ai " in the word " aisle," but the 
sound is more closed. 

AO is the same sound as that of "ow" in English 
" how ? ", but the sound is not so open. 

EI is a very rare diphthong, but where it does occur it 
has the sound of " ay " in " May." 

OU has precisely the sound of the English word " owe." 

lU approximates to the sound of "ew" in " new," but 
is more open or lengthened, 

UA is " oo-ah," but spoken more rapidly. It is almost 
the sound of the " w " in " want." 

UI nearly as in " fluid," but more open. 

OA The sounds of the individual letters run quickly 



16 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

together will produce this sound. It is almost like 

the " ew-a " in Kew-and-Richmond. It is difficult 

to pronounce this correctly until learnt from a native. 

One exception not mentioned above should receive 

attention here. The word " wang," meaning " king," or 

" prince,' has always the sound " wong." In some systems 

of Romanization it is always spelt with an " o " in place of 

the " a " of the Wade system. 

Consonants. 

Chinese is poorer in consonants than is English, while 
some of the double consonants appear at first sight very 
strange to the eye of one versed in the Latin tongues. Such 
combinations of consonations, however, have been chosen 
as the nearest means of representing those sounds which 
are to an English ear the most alien and difficult. Such are, 
for example, hs, tz, and the aspirated ch, p, tz, which need 
special care owing to the fact that there is nothing analo- 
gous in our Western tongues. A word about the " aspirate" 
is here essential. 

Some Sinologues have affirmed that the aspirate in 
Chinese is of greater importance than the tones. This is a 
very vexed question, but there can be no doubt that both 
are of as vital importance as the vocabulary itself. The 
Chinese having such a paucity of different vocables it 
became necessary to devise some means of increasing the 
utility of the existing collection. So this difficulty was over- 
come by the emission of a strong breath immediately after 
the preliminary consonant or consonants. The nearest 
approach to this in the English language is the strong Irish 
breathing given to some words by natives of the Emerald 
Isle. The effect of this " aspirate " is produced by the 
rapid pronunciation of the letter " h," together with the 



CONSONANTS 17 

initial sound of the word. Thus a word spelt in the Wade 
system of romanisation is pronounced as though spelt 
" ch-h-ee " ; a word spelt in this work ch'ien will be enun- 
ciated ch-h-ee-en, though of course spoken rapidly in order 
to conform to the monosyllabic nature of the language. 

It must be continually borne in mind that the aspirate is 
of paramount importance in the enunciation of Chinese. 
If it be omitted in the pronunciation of a single word where 
it properly lies, it will have the effect either of making the 
sentence utterly unintelligible, or of changing the meaning 
entirely. Some of the most disastrous as well as some of 
the most amusing mistakes have arisen from this cause. 

CH is a sound midway between the " ch " of " church " 
and the " j " of " jam." The Chinese do not allow a slight 
emission of breath to follow their consonants as we do. 
The pronunciation of consonants must be much cleaner 
than with us. 

CH' is the sound of " ch " in " church " but much more 
strongly aspirated. Pronounce aspirated consonants as 
though they were actually followed by another " h " — e.g., 
" chhurch." 

F is sounded as in English. 

K. — This letter has a sound intermediate between the 
" k " of " king " and the " g " of " gun." See remarks 
under CH. Pronounce it almost as a hard " g." 

K'. — ^This letter should be sounded as the "kh" of "ink- 
horn." 

L. — As in English. 

M. — As in English. 

N. — As in English. 

P. — This is almost a " b " sound. Keeping the lips well 
closed, but not too much compressed, pronounce a " p," at 



18 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

the same time taking care that no emission of breath follows 
the consonant on to the vowel. 

P'. — ^This is a strongly aspirated "p." Pronounce as in 
" Uphill," but more readily. 

S. — ^As in English. 

SH. — As in English. 

SS is a sharp hissing soimd, and in the mouth of some 
Chinese almost resembles a whistle. It will be sufficient 
for the student to pronounce it with the same sharpness as 
in French or Italian, 

T is almost a " d " sound. Remembering again what 
was said under CH, place the tip of the tongue at the top 
of the palate near the upper row of teeth and articulate " t." 

T' is the " th " of the Irishman's " thea." The word 
" outhouse " is a good memoria technica. 

TS is almost like the " dz " of " adze." 

TS' is the " ts " in the expression " bits-of-wood." 

TZ is like TS, and is only followed by " u." Tzu is a 
sound similar to the " zz " of " buzz." 

TZ' is the preceding sound followed closely by an aspirate. 

W. — As in English. 

Y. — ^As in English. 

In addition to the foregoing, there are also a few com- 
binations of vowels which may be called Tripthongs. 
Although of comparatively rare occurrence, it will be 
necessary for the student to be familiar with their sounds. 

lAI is pronounced as " y-i," in the expression — " really- 
I " — i.e., its sound is that of " ee-I " rapidly uttered. 

lAO. This is pronounced as the "yow" in the slang 
word, " yowl " meaning to howl mournfully, to make a 
plaintive noise. 



CONSONANTS 19 

UAI. — Pronounce this as many careless speakers of 
English enunciate the interrogative " Why ? " — i.e., with- 
out the aspirate, or as the " wi " in the word " wide." 

Remember that the most difficult of all the sounds in the 
Chinese language are the following, and endeavour at the 
outset to master them properly as faulty enunciation in 
these instances is very difficult to conquer at a later stage. 

IH occurs only after " ch," " ch'," and " sh," and " j." 
Its sound is at times scarcely perceptible so rapid is 
the pronunciation of all the words in final " h." This 
final " h " is the relic in romanisation of a tone now practi- 
cally lost to the Pekingese. There is a tendency among 
Europeans and, indeed, among foreigners generally to stress 
this syllable far too heavily. If we take the " i " of " im- 
possible," spoken by a choleric gentleman in a fit of temper, 
emphasising a little its brevity, we shall have the sound of 
the Chinese " ih," 

SSU. — ^This syllable again is much too heavily stressed 
by foreigners. In the mouth of a native it very frequently 
resembles a sotto voce whistle. For all practical purposes, 
it is a near enough approximation to pronounce it as one 
would the first syllable of our word " surrender," minus, of 
course, the " r " sound. Note that in this and in the next 
case, the " u " stands for a nondescript sound and does not 
in any way indicate the vowel sound intended to follow 
the double consonant. A similar sound is found in the 
unaccented " a " of Hindustani, or the initial and final " a " 
of the word " America." 

TZU and TZ'U. — As these two syllables differ only in the 
matter of the aspirate, our remarks as to the former will 
apply to the latter except for the "h " sound necessarily 
combined in the latter. We have remarked that the 



ae COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

English equivalent is the " dz " of the word " adze." Here 
it will be plainly seen that no vowel sound is required after 
the consonants. 

As it is presumed that the student will from tune to time 
consult other works on Chinese, it is deemed advisable to 
give here a warning that many useful books are to be 
obtained in which a system of Romanisation, differing from 
that of Sir Thomas Wade, is employed. These systems are 
very puzzling to one accustomed to the Wade orthography, 
and we propose giving at length a comparative sound-table 
showing the relative values of Chinese vocables according 
to the styles invented by the various Sinologues named. 

Wade Baller Mateer Williams 

A A A ; Nga O 

Ai Ai Ai ; Ngai Ai ; Ngai 

An An An ; Ngan An ; Ngan 

Ang An An ; Ngan Ang. 

Ao Ao Ao Ngao 

Cha Chah Cha Cha 

Ch'a Ch'ah Ch'a Ch'ach 

Chai Chai Chai Chai 

Ch'ai Ch'ai Ch'ao Ch'ai 

Chan Chan Chan Chan ; Chen 

Ch'an Ch'an Ch'an Ch'an ; Ch'en 

Chang Chang Chang Chang 

Ch'ang Ch'ang Ch'ang Ch'ang 

Chao Chao Chao Chao 

Ch'ao Ch'ao Ch'ao Ch'ao 

Chd Chae Chei ; Ch6 CM 

Ch'^ Ch'ae Ch'e Ch'ae 

Chen Chen Chen Chin ; Ch'eng 

Ch'^n Ch'en Ch'en Ch'3xi 



SOUND TABLE 

Wade Baller Mateer 

Ch^ng Cheng Cheng 

Ch'eng Ch'eng Ch'eng 

Chi Chih Chi 

Ch'i Ch'ih Ch'i 

Chia Chiah Chia 

Ch'ia Ch'iah Ch'ia 

Ch'iai Ch'iai Ch'iai 

Chiang Chiang Chiang 

Ch'iang Ch'iang Ch'iang 

Chiao Chiao Chiao 

Ch'iao Ch'iao Ch'iao 

Chieh Chie ; Chieh Chie 

Ch'ieh Chie ; Chieh Ch'ie 

Chien Chien Chien 

Ch'ien Ch'ien Ch'ien 

Chih Chih Chi 

Ch'ih Ch'ih Ch'i 

Chin Chiin Chin 

Ch'in Ch'in Ch'in 

Ching Ching Ching 

Ch'ing Ch'ing Ch'ing 

Chiu Chiu Chiu 

Ch'iu Ch'iu Ch'iu 

Chiung Chiong Chiung 

Ch'iung Ch'iong Ch'iung 

Cho Choh Choa 

Ch'o Ch'oh Ch'oi 

Chou Cheo Chou 

Ch'ou Ch'eo Ch'ou 

Chu Chuh Chu 

Ch'u Ch'uh Ch'u 

Chua Chua Chwa 



21 



Williams 

Ching 

Ch'ing 

Kih; Tsih 

K'ih; Ts'ih 

Kiah 

K'ia 

Ch'iai 

Kiang ; Tsiang 

K'iang ; Ts'iang 

Kiao ; Tsiao 

K'iao ; Ts'iao 

Tsie ; Tsieh 

Ts'ieh ; K'ieh 

Tsien ; Kien 

Ts'ien ; K'ien 

Chih 

Ch'ih 

Tsin ; Kin 

Ts'in ; K'in 

Tsing ; King 

Ts'ing ; K'ing 

Kiu 

K'iu 

Kiting 

K'iung 

Cho 

Ch'o 

Cheu 

Ch'eu 

Chu 

Ch'u 

Chwa 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



Wade 

Ch'ua 

Chuai 

Ch'uai 

Chuan 

Ch'uan 

Chuang 

Ch'uang 

Chui 

Ch'ui 

Chun 

Ch'un 

Chung 

Ch'ung 

Chii 

Ch'u 

Chiian 

Ch'uan 

Chiieh 

Ch'iieh 

Chiin 

Ch'iin 

£ 

£n 

£ng 

£rh 

Fa 

Fan 

Fang 

Fei 

Fen 

F6ng 

Fo 



Baller 
Ch'ua 
Chuai 
Ch'uai 
Chuan 
Ch'uan 
Chuang 
Ch'uang 
Chui 

Ch'ui 
Chuen 
Ch'uen 
Chong 
Ch'ong 
Chiih 
Ch'iih 
Chiien 
Ch'iien 
Chiieh 
Ch'iieh 
Chiiin 
Ch'iiin 
Eh 
En 

Ri 

Fah 

Fan 

Fang 

Fei 

Fen 

Feng 



Mateer 

Ch'wa 

Chwai 

Ch'wai 

Chwan 

Ch'wan 

Chwang 

Ch'wang 

Chwei 

Ch'wei 

Chun 

Ch'un 

Chung 

Ch'ang 

Chii 

Ch'ii 

Chiien 

Ch'iien 

Chiie 

Ch'iie 

Chiin 

Ch'iin 

E; Oa 

£n 

£ng 

£r 

Fa 

Fan 

Fang 

Fei 

F6n 

F6ng 

Foa 



Williams 



Chwai 

Chwen 

Ch'wen 

Chwang 

Ch'wang 

Chui 

Ch'ui 

Chun 

Ch'un 

Chung 

Ch'ung 

Kiih 

Ki'iih 

Kiian ; 

K'iien 

Kiieh ; 

K'iieh 

Kiiin 

K'iiin : 



Ngoh 
Ngin 



Fa 



F6i 

Fan 

Fung 



Ts'iien 
Ts'iien 
Tsiieh 
Ts'iieh 



Ts'iiin 





SOUND TABLE. 


Wade 


Baller 


Mateer 


Williams 


Fou 


Feo 


Fou 


Feu 


Fu 


Fu 


Fu 


Fu 


Ha 


Ha 


Ha 




Hai 


Hai 


Hai 


Hai 


Han 


Han 


Han 


Han 


Hang 


Hang 


Hang 


Hang 


Hao 


Hao 


Hao 


Hao 


H6 




He ; Hei 




Hei 


Heh 


Hei 


Hoh 


H6n 


Hen 


H^n 


Han 


H6ng 


Heng 


Heng 


Hang 


Hon 


Heo 


Hou 


Heu 


Hsi 


Hsi 


Hsi 


Hi ; Si 


Hsia 


Hsia 


Hsia 


Hia 


Hsiang 


Hsiang 


Hsiang 


Hiang ; Siang 


Hsiao 


Hsiao 


Hsiao 


Hiao ; Siao 


Hsieh 


Hsiah 


Hsie 


Hieh ; Sieh 


Hsien 


Hsien 


Hsien 


Hien ; Sien 


Hsin 


Hsin 


Hsin 


Hin ; Sin 


Hsing 


Hsing 


Hsing 


Hing; Sing 


Hsin 


Hsiu 


Hsiu 


Hiu ; Siu 


Hsiung 


Hsiong 


Hsiung 


Hiung 


Hsii 


Hsii 


Hsii 


Hsii 


Hsiian 


Hsiien 


Hsiien 


Hiien ; Siien 


Hsiieh 


Hsiie 


Hsiie 


Hiie 


Hsiin 


Hsiiin 


Hsiin 


Hiun ; siiin 


Hu 


Hu 


Hu 




Hua 


Hua 


Hwa 


Hwah 


Huai 


Huai 


Hwai 


Hwai 


Huan 


Huan 


Hwan 


Hwan 


Huang 


Huang 


Hwang 


Hwang 


Hui 


Huei 


Hwei 


Hwui 



23 



24 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE. 



Wade 


Baller 


Mateer 


Williams 


Hun 


Huen 


Hun 


Hwun 


Hung 


Hong 


Hung 


Hung 


Huo 


Ho 


Hwoa 


Huh ; Hwuh ; Hwoh 


I 


Ih 


I 


Yih 


Jan 


Ran 


Jan 


Jan 


Jang 


Rang 


Jang 


Jang 


Jao 


Rao 


Jao 


Jao 


Je or J6 


Reh 


J^ ; Joa 


Jeh 


Jen 


Ren 


Jen 


jan 


J^ng 


Reng 


Jeng 


J^ng 


Jih 


Rih 


Ji 


'Rh 


Jou 


Reo 


Jou 


Jeu 


Ju 


Ru 


Ju 


Juh 


Juan 


Ruan 


Jwan 


Jwan 


Jui 


Rui 


Jwei 


Jni 


Jun 


Ruen 


Jun 


'Jun 


Jung 


Rong 


Jung 


Jung 


Ka 




Ka 


Ka 


Kai 


Kai 


Kai 


Kai 


K'ai 


K'ai 


K'ai 


K'ai 


Kan 


Kan 


Kan 


Kan 


K'an 


K'an 


K'an 


K'an 


Kang 


Kang 


Kang 


Kang 


K'ang 


K'ang 


K'ang 


K'ang 


Kao 


Kao 


Kao 


Kao 


K'ao 


K'ao 


K'ao 


Koh 


Kg 


Keh 


Ke 


K'oh 


K'fi 


K'eh 


K'6 


K'g 


Kei 




Kei 


Kei 


K6n 


Ken 


Ken 


Kan 


K'gn 


K'en 


K'^n 


K'Sn 


Keng 


Keng 


K6ng 


King 



SOUND TABLE 



25 



Wade 

K'eng 

Kou 

K'ou 

Ku 

K'u 

Kua 

K'ua 

Kuai 

K'uai 

Kuan 

K'uan 

Kuang 

K'uang 

Kuei 

K'uei 

Kun 

K'un 

Kung 

K'ung 

Kuo 

K'uo 

La 

Lai 

Lan 

Lang 

Lao 

Lg 

Lei 

L^ng 

Li 

Lia 

Liang 



Baller 
K'eng 
Keo 
K'eo 
Kuh 
K'uh 
Kuah 
K'uah 
Kuai 
Kuai 
Kuan 
K'uan 
Kuang 
K'uang 
Kuei 
K'uei 
Kuen 
K'uen 
Kong 
K'ong 
Kueh 
K'ueh 
La 
Lai 
Lan 
Lang 
Lao 
Leh 
Lui 
Leng 
Li 
Lia 
Liang 



Mateer 

K'eng 

Kou 

K'ou 

Ku 

K'u 

Kwa 

K'wa 

Kwai 

K wai 

Kwan 

K'wan 

Kwang 

K'wang 

Kwei 

K'wei 

Kun 

K'un 

Kung 

K'ung 

Kwoi 

K'woci 

La 

Lai 

Lan 

Lang 

Lao 

L6 

Lei 

Leng 

Li 

Lia 

Liang 



Williams 
K'Sng 
Keu 
K'eu 
Ku 
K'u 
Kwa 
K'wa 
Kwai 
K'wai 
Kwan 
K'wan 
Kwang 
K'wang 
Kw6i 
K'w6i 
Kwun 
K'wun 
Kung 
K'ung 
Kwoh 
K'woh 
La 
Lai 
Lan 
Lang 
Lao 
U 
L6i 
Lang 
Li 
Lia 
Liang 



26 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



Wade 


Baller 


Mateer 


Williams 


Liao 


Liao 


Liao 


Liao 


Lieh 


Lieh 


Lie 


Lieh 


Liieh 


Lien 


Lien 


Lien 


Lieh 


Liieh 


Lin 


Lin 


Lin 


Lieh 


Liieh 


Ling 


Ling 


Ling 


Lieh 


Liieh 


Liu 


Liu 


Liu 


Lieh 


Liieh 


Lo 


Loh 


Loa 


Lo 


Lou 


Leo 


Lou 


Leu 


Lu 


Lu 


Lu 


Lu 


Luan 


Luan 


Lwan 


Luan 


Lun 


Luen 


Lun 


Lun 


Lung 


Long 


Lung 


Lung 


Lu 


Liih 


Lii 


Lu 


Liian 


Luan 


Liien 


Lwan ; Liien 


Liieh 




LiocL 


Lueh 


Ma 


Ma 


Ma 


Ma 


Mai 


Mai 


Mai 


Mai 


Man 


Man 


Man 


Man 


Mang 


Mang 


Mang 


Mang 


Mao 


Mao 


Mao 


Ma 


Mei 


Mei 


Mei 


Mei 


Men 


Men 


Men 


Man 


Meng 


Meng 


Meng 


Mang ; Mung 


Mi 


Mi 


Mi 


Mieh ; Me 


Miao 


Miao 


Miao 


Miao 


Mieh 


Mieh 


Mie 


Mieh 


Mien 


Mien 


Mi^n 


Mien 


Min 


Min 


Min 


Min 


Ming 


Ming 


Ming 


Ming 


Miu 


Miu 


Miu 


Miu 


Mo 


Mo 


Mo& 


Mo 


Mou 




Mou 


Mou (j 


i.e., Meu) 





SOUND TABLE 




Wade 


Baller 


Mateer 


Williams 


Mu 


Muh 


Mu 


Mu 


Na 


Nah 


Na 


Nah ; Noh 


Nai 


Nai 


Nai 


Nai 


Nan 


Nan 


Nan 


Nan 


Nang 


Nang 


Nang 


Nang 


Nao 


Nao 


Nao 


Nao 


Ne 








Nei 


Nui 


Nei 


Nei 


mn 


Nuen 


Nen 




Neng 


Neng 


Neng 


NSng 


Ni 


Ni 


Ni 


Ni 


Niang 


Niang 


Niang 


Niang 


Niao 


Niao 


Niao 


Niao 


Nieh 


Nieh 


Nie 


Nieh 


Nien 


Nien 


Nien 


Nien 


Nin 


Nin 


Nin 


Nin 


Ning 


Ning 


Ning 


Ning 


Niu 


Niu 


Niu 


Niu 


No 


No 


Noa 


No 


Nou 




Nou 


Neu 


Nu 


Nu 


Nou 


Nu 


Nuan 


Nuan 


Nun 


Nwan 


Nun 


Nuen 




Niin 


Nung 


Nong 


Nung 


Nung 


Nil 


Nu 


Nil 


Nil 


Niieh 




Nile 










Ngo 





Ou 


Eo 


Ou 


Ngeu 


Pa 


Pa 


Pa 


Pa 


Fa 


P'a 


P'a 


P'a 


Pai 


Pai 


Pai 


Pai 


P'ai 


P'ai 


P'ai 


Pa'i 



27 



28 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



Wade 


Baller 


Mateer 


Williams 


Pan 


Pan 


Pan 


Pan 


P'an 


P'an 


Fan 


P'an 


Pang 


Pang 


Pang 


Pang 


P'ang 


P'ang 


P'ang 


P'ang 


Pao 


Pao 


Pao 


Pao 


P'ao 


P'ao 


P'ao 


P'ao 


Pei 


Pei 


P6i 


P'ei 


P'ei 


P'ei 


P'6i 


P'6i 


P^n 


Pen 


P6n ^ 


P&n 


P'^n 


P'en 


P'Sn 


P'Sn 


P^ng 


Peng 


Png 


Pang 


P'^ng 


P'eng 


P'eng 


P'ang 


Pi 


Pi 


Pi 


Pi 


Fi 


P'i 


P'i 


Fi 


Piao 


Piao 


Piao 


Piao 


P'iao 


P'iao 


P'iao 


P'iao 


Pieh 


Pieh 


Pie 


Pieh 


P'ieh 


P'ieh 


Fie 


P'ieh 


Pien 


Pien 


Pein 


Pien 


P'ien 


P''en 


P'ien 


P'ien 


Pin 


Pin 


Pin 


Pin 


P'in 


P'in 


P'in 


P'in 


Ping 


Ping 


Ping 


Ping 


P'ing 


P'ing 


P'ing 


P'ing 


Po 


Po 


Poa 


Po 


P'o 


P'o 


P'oa 


P'o 


P'ou 


P'eo 


p'ou 


P'en 


Pu 


Pu 


Pu 


Pu 


P'u 


P'u 


Pu 


P'u 


Sa 


Sah 


Sa 


Sa 


Sai 


Sai 


Sai 


Sai 


San 


San 


San 


San 





SOUND TABLE 




Wade 


Baller 


Mateer 


Williams 


Sang 


Sang 


Sang 


Sang 


Sao 


Sao 


Sao 


Sao 


Se 


Seh 


86 


S« 


S6n 


Sen 


San 




S^ng 


Seng 


S6ng 


sang 


Sha 


Sha 


Sha 


Sha 


Shai 


Shai 


Shai 


Shai 


Shan 


Shan 


Shan 


Shan 


Shang 


Shang 


Shang 


Shang 


Shao 


Shao 


Shao 


Shao 


ShS 


Sheh 


Shd 


She 


Shen 


Shen 


Shen 


Shan 


Sheng 


Sheng 


Sheng 


Shang ; Shing 


Shih 


Shih 


Shi 


Shi; Sh' 


Shou 


Sheo 


Shou 


Sheu 


Shu 


Shu 


Shu 


Shu 


Shuai 


Shuai 


Shwai 


Shwai 


Shuan 


Shuan 


Shwan 


Shwan 


Shuang 


Shuang 


Shwang 


Shwang 


Shui 


Shui 


Shwei 


Shwi 


Shun 


Shuen 


Shwn 


Shun 


Shuo 


Shoh 


Shwoci 


Shoh ; Shwoh 


So 


So 


Soi 




Sou 


Seo 


Sou 




Su 


Su 


Su 




Suan 


Suan 


Swan 




Sui 


Suei 


Swei 




Sun 


Suen 


Sun 




Sung 


Song 


Sung 




Ssu 


Si 


Si 




Ta 


Tah 


Ta 




T'a 


T'ah 


T'a 





29 



30 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



Wade 


Baller 


Mateer 


Williams 


Tai 


Tai 


Tai 


Tai 


T'ai 


T'ai 


T'ai 


T'ai 


Tan 


Tan 


Tan 


Tan 


T'an 


T'an 


T'an 


T'an 


Tang 


Tang 


Tang 


Tang 


T'ang 


T'ang 


T'ang 


T'ang 


Tao 


Tao 


Tao 


Tao 


Ta'o 


T'ao 


T'ao 


T'ao 


T6 


Teh 


Te 


Te 


T'« 


T'eh 


T'e 


T'eh 


Tei 








T'ei 








Teng 


Teng 


Teng 


Tang 


T'eng 


T'eng 


T'eng 


T'ang 


Ti 


Ti 


Ti 


Ti 


T'i 


T'i 


T'i 


T'i 


Tiao 


Tiao 


Tiao 


Tiao 


T'iao 


T'iao 


T'iao 


T'iao 


Tieh 


Tie 


Tie 


Ti6 


T'ieh 


T'ie 


T'ie 


Tieh 


Tien 


Tien 


Tien 


Tien 


T'ien 


T'ien 


T'ien 


T'ien 


Ting 


Ting 


Ting 


Ting 


T'ing 


T'ing 


T'ing 


T'ing. 


Tiu 


Tiu 


Tiu 


Tiu 


To 


Toh 


Toa 


To 


T'o 


T'oh 


T'oa 


T'o 


Tou 


Tou 


Tou 


Tou 


T'ou 


T'ou 


T'ou 


T'ou 


Tsa 


Tsah 


Tsa 


Tsa 


Ts'a 


Ts'ah 


Ts'a 


Ts'ah 


Tsai 


Tsai 


Tsai 


Tsai 



SOUND TABLE 



31 



Wade 

Ts'ai 

Tsan 

Ts'an 

Tsang 

Ts'ang 

Tsao 

Ts'ao 

Ts6 

Ts'6 

Tsei 

Ts6n 

Ts'^n 

Tseng 

Ts'eng 

Tso 

Ts'o 

Tsou 

Ts'ou 

Tsu 

Ts'u 

Tsuan 

Ts'uan 

Tsui 

Ts'ui 

Tsun 

Ts'un 

Tsung 

Ts'ung 

Tu 

T'u 

Tuan 

T'uan 



Baller 
Ts'ai 
Tsan 
Ts'an 
Tsang 
Ts'ang 
Tsao 
Ts'ao 
Tseh 
Ts'eh 

Tsen 

Ts'en 

Tseng 

Ts'eng 

Tsoh 

Ts'oh 

Tseo 

Ts'eo 

Tsuh 

Ts'uh 

Tsuan 

Ts'uan 

Tsui 

Ts'ui 

Tsuen 

Ts'uen 

Tsong 

Ts'ong 

Tuh 

T'uh 

Tuan 

T'uan 



Mateer 

Ts'ai 

Tsan 

Ts'an 

Tsang 

T'sang 

Tsao 

Ts'ao 

Ts6 

Ts^ 

Tsei 

Ts6n 

Ts'en 

Tseng 

Ts'eng 

Tso 3. 

Ts'o a 

Tsou 

Ts'ou 

Tsu 

Ts'u 

Tswan 

Ts'wan 

Tswei 

Ts'wei 

Tsun 

Ts'un 

Tsung 

Ts'ung 

Tu 

T'u 

Twan 

T'wan 



Williams 

Ts'ai 

Tsan 

Ts'an 

Tsang 

Ts'ang 

Tsao 

Ts'ao 

Ts6 

Ts'6 

TsSn 

Ts3.n 

TsSng ; ChSng 

Ts'Sng ; Ch'ang 

Tso 

Ts'o 

Tsou 

Ts'ou 

Tsu 

Ts'u 

Tswan 

Ts'wan 

Tsui 

Ts'ui 

Tsun 

Ts'un 

Tsung 

Ts'ung 

Tu 

T'u 

Twan 

T'wan 



32 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



Wade 


Baller 


Mateer 


Williams 


Tui 


Tui 


Twei 


Tui 


T*ui 


T'ui 


T'wei 


T'ui 


Tun 


Tuen 


Tun 


Tun 


Tung 


Tong 


Tung 


Tung 


T'ung 


T'ong 


T'ung 


T'ung 


Tzu 


Tsl 


Tsi 


Tsz' 


Tz'u 


Tsl 


Ts'i 


Ts'z' 


Wa 


Uah 


Wa 


Wah 


Wai 


Uai 


Wai 


Wai 


Wan 


Uan 


Wan 


Wan 


Wang 


Uang 


Wang 


Wang 


Wei 


Uei 


Wei 


W6i; Wi 


Wen 


Uen 


Wen 


wan 


Weng 




W6ng 


Ngo 


Wo 





Wo 





Wu 


u 


Wu 


Wu 


Ya 


la 


Ya 


Ya 


Yai 


lai 


Yai 


Yai 


Yang 


lang 


Yang 


Yang 


Yao 


lao 


Yao 


Yao 


Yeh 


leh 


Yeh 


Yeh 


Yen 


len 


Yen 


Yen 


Yin 


In 


Yin 


Yin 


Ying 


Ing 


Ying 


Ying 


Yu 


lu 


Yu 


Yu 


Yung 


long 


Yung 


Yung 


Yu 


u 


Yu 


Yuh 


Yiian 


Uen 


Yiian 


Yuen 


Yiieh 


tJeh 


Yiieh 


Yueh 


Yiin 


Uin 


Yiin 


Yun 



NoTK. — Wherever "Uang" occurs, it should be pronounced as 
though it were "wang." Thus, "chuang" is pronounced almost 
as if it were spelt in English, " jwong." 



THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 33 

Although none of the above systems are perfect for the 
purpose of transHterating the Chinese characters, yet, as 
has been remarked before, the Wade style has been adjudged 
the nearest approach to the actual sounds as pronounced 
by a native. By means of this table, the student can for 
himself transfer into the latter words and phrases found 
the very useful works by the originators of the other 
schemes of Romanisation. It will be found useful also for 
the purpose of comparison as to the real value of the various 
sounds of the Chinese language. A very good and profit- 
able plan would be to go through the entire table with a 
native or a Western scholar of Chinese. 

Lesson I 

The student is strongly advised to cover up the English 
translations of the Chinese Exercises until he has made an 
independent effort to arrive at the meaning of the sentences 
himself. Then he should try to put the English again into 
idiomatic Chinese, this time covering his own translation ; 
then comparison should be made and errors corrected. 

The Simple Sentence. 

I. — As has been before remarked the construction of the 
Chinese sentence is simplicity itself so far as the ordinary 
desires and necessities of conversation are concerned. We 
now proceed to give examples of the simplest kind, viz.: — 
the tri-verbal sentence. 

Wo^ yao^ mai* - I wish to sell 

Wo^yao^mai^ - - I wish to buy 

Wo^ pu^ yao^ - - I do not want 

Ni^ pu^ yao* - - You do not want 

Ta^ pu^ yao* - - He does not want 



34 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

T'a} laiHiao^ - - He has come 

T'a} mei^ lai^ - - He has not come 

Kao^su^t'a^ - - Tell him 

Ni^ kuo* lai^ - - You come over here 

Chi^ shih^ ch'U^ - - At what time do you go ? 

Chi^ shih^ lai^ - - At what time will you come ? 

T'a^ lao^ to} - - He is very old 

Ch'a}- pu} to^ - - There is not much difference. 

The rationale of such sentences is easily seen when the 
meanings of each word are put together in English. In the 
case of the last two sentences the words mean literally : 
' He — old — great," or " He has reached a great age " ; 
and " difference — not — too much." 

As will be seen from the above examples, the tri-verbal 
sentence generally takes the form of noun or pronoun — 
verb and object ; or noun or pronoun — negative and verb. 
This is as far as it is wise to take the grammatical analogy 
with which we are so familiar, since these parts of speech as 
such do not exist in Chinese. 

In the sentence : "I wish to go but he wants to stay," 
we find the Chinese to consist of two simple sentences in 
juxtaposition with or without a conjunction. The Chinese 
equivalent for " but " is " tan*," although this is by no 
means used as much as in English. Thus our sentence will 
read : " Wo^ yao* ch'u\ t'a^ pu^ yao* " ; literally, " I want 
go, he not want." This would be much more common than 
would the sentence with tan* as the fourth word in place of 
the comma. 

Taking now a small vocabulary, we can proceed, knowing 
the primary meanings and explaining the use of the various 
particles as they appear, to simple exercises, wherein the 
structure of the language will appear more clearly than 



THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 36 

would be the case by attempting to force grammatical 
analysis upon such a language as Chinese. 

wo*. I (myself). ni^-ti, your. 

wo^-min', we wo^-ti, mine, my. 

yao^, to want. mai^, to buy. 

m*, you. mai^, to sell. 

ni'-mSn*, you (plural). shen^-mo, what ? 

tung^-hsi^, a thing. che'^-ko, this. 

/«,' liao^ final particle, finished, huan*, to change (generally re-) 

past, full stop. peated. 

na'^-ko, that. t'a^-ti, his, hers, its. 

kei^, to give, and many other IP-wu*. a present. 

meanings. k'uai*. quick. 

sung*, to give, as a present, etc. ch'u^, to go. 

t'a^, he, him, her, it. pa*, an emphatic final particle ; 
yu^, to have. a sign of imperative mood. 

jen*, a man. 

2. — Notes. — From the above it will be seen that the 
particle ti is a mark of the genitive or possessive case, save 
in the case of adjectives in which event the addition of ti 
transforms the adjective into an adverb, e.g. : 
k'uai {adj.) - - - quick 
k'uai-ti (adv.) - - quickly 

Also that mSn added — but only to pronouns — makes 
plural of singular. 

3. — Ko'^ is what is known as an auxiliary numeral — that 
is, it is placed immediately after the cardinal numbers and 
the ordinals are formed by means of it and ti, in the coolie 
speech, thus : — 

Cardinals. — (1) i^-ko ; (2) liang^-ko ; (3) san^-ko ; 
(4) ssH^-ko. 

Ordinals. — (1st) i-^ko-ti ; (2nd) liang^-ko-ti ; (3rd) san^- 
ko-ti ; (4th) ssH'^-ko-ti, etc. (More will be found in Lesson 

3.) 

4. — What is meant by saying that kei^ has the meaning 
" to give," and many others can best be illustrated by 
examples. It frequently translates some of our preposi- 



36 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

tions, as seen in the common example : — Hsieh^ hsin* kei'= 
to write a letter to (some one or other). 

(6) Wo^ yao* huan^huan chS*-ko-kei^ na*-ko*. 
I want to change this for that. Literally : 
I want change — change this, give that, 

KeP sometimes has the force of " at ", and in the vulgar 
speech " with." 

5. — Sung* is a more polite wora lor *' give," and means, 
literally, " to escort," as though the present were escorted 
by the thoughts and wishes of the giver. 

6. — Pa* is the sign of the Imperative, and in many cases 
carries with it a derogatory sense, so that it should only be 
used to inferiors. " Ch'0-pa " is a frequent expression 
for " Clear out ! " " Be off with you ! " In the pohte 
language, etiquette comes to the aid, and it is scarcely, if 
ever, necessary to employ the Imperative — everything being 
done by suggestion rather than order. 

7. — Liao^, or la*, as it is more commonly pronounced, is, 
on the other hand, a universally-used terminal particle. 
It rounds off a phrase or a sentence ; {h) shows the com- 
pletion of an action under discussion ; (c) shows that the 
theme of the conversation is closed. It may be called the 
" spoken period." As will be seen later, the Chinese have 
similar words to express colloquially, the mark of interroga- 
tion, mark of exclamation, etc. 

Exercise 1a. 

[a] Wo^ yao* ch'u*. 

[b] NP-men^ yao* mai^ shSn^-mo lung^-hsi ? 

[c] Wo^ sung* t'a^ che*-ko. 
{d) Ni^ mai* na*-ko. 

{e) T'a^ sung* wo^ li^-wu. 
(f) Ni^ yao* mai^ shen^-mo ? 



NEGATIVES AND THEIR USE 37 

(g) Ni^ k'uai* ch'ii* pa. 
(h) T'a mai*-la chS*-ko. 
(i) K'uai*' lai^, k'uai* lai^. 
(j) Lai^-liao. 

Exercise 1b. 

(a) I want to go (away). 

(b) What (thing) do you wish to buy ? 

(c) I am sending him this (or I send him this). 

(d) You sell that. 

{e) He sent me a present. 

(/) What do you want to buy ? 

(g) You get out quick ! 

(h) He sold this. 

(i) Hurry up ! (The Chinese almost invariably repeat 
this phrase and, as a rule, repeat most ejaculations several 
times.) Literally, " Come quickly." 

(j) (I) have come. 

Negatives and their Use. 

Pu^ - - not, no (final or before interrogative), 

Mei^ - - no, not, none of 

wu^ - - not, no, without, wanting (an initial word) 

cKu^ - - out, to spring from 

fei^ - - not, not right, false, is not 

mo - - suffixed to a sentence containing a query. 

This is the spoken mark of interrogation. 

a, va - • suffixed to a sentence containing startling 
news or intelligence. This is the spoken 
mark of exclamation. It is also arbi- 
trarily used on any occasion, as, e.g., 
when calling a person. If a person had 
the name Ming, the call would most 
often be Ming-a ! 



38 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

na^-i^ko^ - which ? shuo^ - to speak 
chi^-li^ - here hua^ - words, speech 

na^-li - there shuo^-hua converse, conversation 

na^-li - where ? tsai^ - at, near, by, in 

8. — The correct use of the negatives in Chinese is abso- 
lutely essential to comprehensible speaking. By a few 
examples it is hoped that the student will appreciate the 
underlying principle and will not find this so great a 
difficulty. 

Pu^ is used in the sense of refusal or disinclination towards 
a positive act, while mei^ indicates rather that there has not 
happened what might have been expected or there is none 
of what one hoped to find. 

Example 1. : — 

T'a}-pu}lai^ - - He ze'ow7 come 
T'a^ mei^ laP - - He has not come 

Example 2. : — 

T'a^ pu^ ch'u^ lai^ - He won't come out 
T'a^ mei ^ch'u^ lai^ - He has not come out 

9. — Remember, however, this very important rule. 
Never, in Mandarin, use pu^ with the verb yu^ to have. 
Always use mei^ as wo'^ mei^ yu^, I have not, t'a^ meP yu^ 
he has not, etc. The use of pu^ with yu^ is one of the 
gravest offences in speaking Northern Chinese. (N.B. — In 
Yunnan, however, mei^ seems to be unknown, and there one 
hears on every hand the expression pu^-yu^, which to the 
Northerner is unpardonable.) 

10. — Wu^ is more a classical word than one of colloquial 
usage and is frequently used in the written modern style, 
but as it is often to be met in quotations from the classics 
in every-day speech, it is necessary to describe it. Its 
meaning is best described as " without " or " not having " 
and its position is at the beginning of a sentence or phrase. 



NEGATIVES AND THEIR USE 39 

Example : — 

Wu^ shan^ jen^ - A " without- virtue " man — a vicious 

man 
Wu^ chih^ tai* - A " without-knowledge " dynasty — 

an ignorant generation. 

11. — Fei^ is also a written language negative, and what 
has been said of wu'^ may be repeated here. Fei^ is a nega- 
tive in the sense of contrariety : — " He who is not " or " is 
not right," " that which is false," " that which is not," etc. 

There are more negatives than those mentioned above, 
but they will suffice for the student of colloquial. The 
reason for the large number of negative expressions in 
Chinese is to be found in the fact that in this language the 
negative construction is almost always preferred to the 
positive. Reduced to a literal example from a native 
expression — A Chinese much prefers to say that a thing 
"is not without it " than to say " it has it." But the 
student will have opportunity of getting exercise in the 
Chinese negatives ere long. 

Exercise 2a. 

(a) wo^ mei^ lai^. (i) t'a^ tsai^ na^-li ni ? 

(b) t'a} pu^ lai^ (j) tsai^ che^-li. 

(c) wo^ pu} ch'ii*. (k) na^-i-ko jen^ lai^-la ? 
{d) t'a^ mei^ sung* ni ^na*-ko (/) i'a^ lai^-liao met lap ni ? 

li^-wu. {m) ni^ kei^ na^-i^-ko jSn^ 

(e) t'a^ pu^ kei^ wo^. shuo^-hua ? 

(/) t'a^ mei^ ch'u^ ch'ii*. (n) yao* t'a} cM*-li lai^. 

g) t'a^ mei^ k'uai* lai^-la. (o) pu^ yao'^ k'uai*-shuo^-hua. 
(A) shin^-mo jen^ ch'u^ lai^- {p) shSn^-mo jen shuo^-hua 
la ? ni ? 



40 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

Exercise 2b. 

(a) I have not come, (k) (Which man) Who has 

{b) He will not come. come ? 

(c) I will not go. (/) Has he come or not ? 

(d) He has not sent you that (w) To whom were you 
present. speaking ? 

(e) He will not give me. (n) (I) want him to come 
(/) He has not gone out. here. 

(g) He did not come quickly, (o) (I) do not want (you) to 
{h) What man has come out ? speak quickly. 
(i) Where is he? (p) Who i^^ the man speaking? 

(j) (He is) here (lit. at here). 

LESSON 2. 
Exercises on the Position of Negatives. 

12. — As has already been stated, " position " is all- 
important in Chinese construction, and, above all, the 
position of the negative needs close and particular attention. 
In this lesson the force of the transference of the negative 
from one part of the sentence to the other will be displayed 
fuUy. 

In the sentences t'a^ pu^ ch'u^ lai^ and t'a^ mei^ ch'u^ lai^, 
we have literally " he not (will) not come," and " he not 
(has) out come," and in order to convey the meaning of the 
English expressions, " He won't {i.e., refuses to) come out " 
and " he has not come out " the Chinese expressions above 
are invariable. If, however, we move the negative word 
nearer the end of the sentence, we change the meaning of 
the first in a very great degree, and the second to a lesser, 
but still important, alteration, thus : — 

T'a} ch'u^ pu^ lai^, He cannot {i.e., is unable to) come out, 
or He cannot get out. 



POSITION OF NEGATIVES 41 

T'a^ mei^ ch'u^ lai^, He has not come out as yet or so far 
he has not come out. 

Even in this primary example, the importnace, idiomati- 
cally, of placing the negative correctly can be seen. There 
are, however, many more idioms formed purely by the 
position of the negative particle. 

13. If we take the word chih^ meaning " to know," with 
tao* " a way " (as in the example t'ieh^ iao*, lit. " iron road," 
i.e., " railway "), we have the colloquial compound chih^- 
tao, which is the commonest expression for " to know." 
Now with the word shih* meaning " to be," we can make a 
negative sentence as follows : — 

Wo^ pu^ chih^'tao'*' na^-ko* shih* shin^-mo tmtg^-hsi^ 
1 do not know that is what thing 
I do not know what thing it is 

14. From this it will be seen that frequently one uses 
what we should call compound verbs. This is, of course, 
natural in a monosyllabic language. These compound verbs 
are frequently split by the negative Pu^, though not all 
verbs can be so used. 

k'an'^-chien*, to see. hsiao^-tS^, to know. 

isou^-lung*, to walk. shih^-pai*, to fail. 

k'an*-shu^, to read. chung^-chieh^, to end. 

nien*-shu^, to read, study. ch'i^-lai^, to begin. 

win*, to ask. ta}-ying^, to answer. 

Now take the sentence : — 

w6^ wen'^ i'a^ ; ni^ hsiao^ pu^ ti. 

I asked him you didn't (quite) know (or cannot), 
as opposed to the following : — 

Wo^ wen* t'a^ ; ni^ pu^ chih^-tao*. 

I asked him ; you don't (or didn't) know. 



42 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

15. Although there is actually not a shade of difference 
between the two compounds used for " to know," as they 
are interchangeable, yet the meaning is different owing to 
the negative being placed between the component parts of 
the verb. It is not the custom to insert pu^ between 
chih^ and tao'^. 

16. Similarly with the verb tsou^-tung. Although one 
may assume a definite negation of an act in both forms, yet 
t'a^ pu^ tsou^-tung^ means he will not (refuses to) walk, while 
t'a^ tsou^ pu} tung^ means "he cannot walk," " he is unable 
to walk," or, possibly, " he can hardly walk." One must 
rely on the context for the finer shades of meaning. 

ta^, great, big, large. aP, short (in height). 

hsiao^, small, little. tuan^, short (in length). 

hao^, good, love. man^, slow. 

pu^-hao, bad, no good. tung^-te, understand, com- 

nSng^, can, able. prehend. 

hui'^, can, able. ming^-pai, understand. 

ch'ang^, long. 

Wo^ k'an^-chien ta* ti k'an^ pu^ chien^ hsiao^ ti. 
I (can) see the large (ones) (I) cannot see the small (ones). 
Ni^ ming^-pai^ mo ? Do you understand ? 
Wo^ tung^ pu^ te^. I do not (quite) understand. 
T'a^ shuo^ k'uai liao-yao man'^-man^-ti shuo^ hua^. 
He spoke quickly. (I) want slower speech. 

17. Remembering that mei^ is the negative for_yw^ " to 
have," another note may be made here as follows : — 

Mei^ need not be followed invariably by yu^ ; in point of 
fact, by constant usage mei'^ has come to be almost a " not- 
have " negative so that frequently it is met in front of a 



POSITION OF NEGATIVES 43 

main -verb without auxiliary yu^ to have as witness the 
following examples : — 

T'a^ mei^ lai'^ for T'a^ mei^ yu^ lai^, He has not come. 

T'a^ mei^ k' an^-chien'^ la, He has not seen. 

Wo^ mei^ tning^-pai^ la, I have not understood. 

Exercise 3a. 

(a) ChS^-ko shih* ch'ang^, na*-ko shih'^ tuan^. 

(b) Na'^-ko shih* ta^, che*-ko shih^ hsiao^. 

(c) T'a^ pu- ch'u^ lai" : ch'u^ pu^ lai^ liao mo ? 
{d) Ni^-mSn^ tning^-pai^ mo ? 

{e) Ni^ chih^-tao* pu chih}-tao^ ? 

(/) Man^-man-ti shuo^, k^uai^-k'uai*-U shuo pu^ hao^. 

(g) Kei^ wo^ k'an^-chien. 

(h) Na^-ko shik^ ch'ang^ shih* tuan^, wo^ pu^ chih^- tao*. 

Exercise 3b. 

(a) This is long, that is short. 

(b) That is big, this is small. 

(c) Will he not come out or can he not get out ? 

(d) Do you (plural) understand ? 

{e) Do you (singular) know or not ? 

(/) Speak slowly, it is bad to speak quicklJ^ 

(g) Let me see (lit. give me look — see). 

(h) (Whether) that is long or short, I do not know. 

18. Example (g) in the preceding exercise would be 
better expressed colloquially by kei^ wo^ k'an^-k'an (lit., 
give me look-look), as this is the phrase generally heard 
amongst the natives. The one in the exercise may stand, 
however, as being perfectly correct and also occasionally 
heard. 

Example [h) shows a favourite location in Chinese. 
Where we say " Whether it is so or not, long or short, large 



44 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE j 

or small," the Chinese puts the two adjectives in juxta- 
position, independent of any introductory conjunction or 
relative, e.g. : — 

T'a^ hao^ pu^ hao^, wo^ pu^ chih^-tao^ (Whether) he is good 
or bad I do not know. 

19. " It does not matter " is translated colloquially by 
Pu^ yao* chin^, so we may make a longer sentence thus : — 

Na^-ko ch'ang^ tuan^, che*-ko ta^ hsiao^, t'a^ hao^ pu} hao^. 

That long short, this great small, he good not good. 

Ni^ ming^-pai pu}- ming^-pai, pu^ yao^ chin^. 

You understand not understand (it) does not matter. 

" It doesn't matter (whether) that is long (or) short, 
(whether) this is great (or) small, (whether) he is good (or) 
bad, (whether) you understand (or) not." 

20. — Neng^ and hui'^. These two words are in everyday 
use, meaning " ability," " can," " able to do." NSng^ 
implies more proficiency than hui'^ and there are again other 
distinctions as to their use . Suppose two men were speaking 
very rapidly in Chinese, slurring their words and not 
enunciating their sentences clearly. Then one (an outsider) 
understanding Chinese might say : — 

T'a^-men man^-man-ti shuo^-hua, wo^ ming^-pai, or better, 
T'a^-men jo^ man^-man-H shuo^-hua, wo^ neng^ ming^-pai : 
If they spoke slowly I could understand, jo^ being the 
common word for "if." 

Supposing, however, one of the onlookers wished to 
know if his neighbour understood Chinese, he would not 
use ning^ for " can " or able," in his question, " China " 
chung^-kou^ and Chinese is chung^-kuo^ hua*, and the 
question, " Can you speak Chinese would run thus : — 

Ni^ hui^ shuo^ chung^ kuo* hua*' mo ? : You able 
speak China-speech ? 



POSITION OF NEGATIVES 46 

Reduced to a rule, one might say that what with us are 
regarded as accomplishments — e.g., speaking foreign lan- 
guages, playing musical instruments, etc., need the word 
hui'^, whereas in cases where degrees of proficiency or 
adaptability are concerned NSng^ is the word indicated. 

France, Fa^kuo^ ; Japan, Jih*-pSn^-kuo^ ; Russia, 
0*-kuo^ ; Germany, Te^-kuo^ ; Austria, Ao'^-kud^ ; England 
Ying^-kuo^. 

21. Another negative which is frequently used, especi- 
ally with shuo^ hua, is pieh^ , which is almost equal to pu^yao*, 
as : — Pieh^ shuo^-hua, " Be quiet," lit., " not want speech." 
Also pieh^ ch'ang^, " don't sing." Pieh^ kuan^ min^, lit., 
" not want shut door." " Don't shut the door." The 
student is warned that he will find this word pronounced as 
though spelt " bay," and the first phrase will sound to him 
like " bay shwah " (for bee-ay shwaw-hwah), but this is a 
slurring to which his ear will become accustomed only by 
practice. 

22. When the two negatives wu^ a.ndfei^ come together 
in a sentence (a construction beloved of the native speaker) 
the result is a strong positive. This form is used often 
where emphasis or insistence is required, e.g. : — 

Ni^-min wu^ feV- chi^ mo k'uai^-ti shuo^-hua mo ? 

You (plural) always this quickly-quickly speak ? 

Do you always speak as rapidly as this ? 

Chi^ is here short for chi^-ko. The ko is very frequently 
dropped when che*-ko and na^-ko precede words with which 
they are constantly associated. 

Ni^-mSn^ wu^ fei^ chih^-tao* hui^ hsin* met* lai^ liao. 

You (plural) not have is-not know answer not has come 
finish. 

You are certain that no answer has come ? 



46 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

23. Mo is a negative used with a verb in the Imperative 
Mood, and means " not," " do not." It has also other uses 
which are important idiomatically, e.g. : — 

Mo* ta^ wo^, Do not beat me. 

Mo* k'uai*-ti tsou^-tung*, Do not walk rapidly. 

With an adjective mo has a meaning of " incomparable " 
" nothing like it," etc., as in : — 

Mo* hsiao^ yii^ chS*-ko, Nothing so small as this. 

{Yii means " with," " by," " at," and is dealt with in a 
later chapter.) 

Mo* ta* yu^ na-ko. Nothing so large as that. 

With the word jo* the negative mo has the sense of "it 
would be better." This is the colloquia equivalent of the 
written language expression pu^ ju^ having the same 
meaning and also the sense " not so good as." — e.g. : — 

Mo* jo* {or ju^) chiao* t'a^ o*-kuo^ hua^, It would be better 
to teach him Russian. 

24. Finally, the negative wei*, meaning " not yet, 
never," is only used with verbs in the past tense, e.g. : — 

Wo^ wei* ts'ing^ ch'ii*, I have not as yet gone, 
T'a?-min^ wei* ts'ing^ lai^-la, They have not yet come. 
The Ts'Sng^ here used is a " tense-particle " attached to 
verbs, and will be found explained in the chapter on verbs. 

Vocabulary of New Words. 

pi*-yao, ought, must. hsi*, fine, small, minute. 

kao*su, tell, inform. shui^. who (relative pronoun), 

yang*, kind, sort, fashion. same as shen^-mo jSn^. 

i^-yang'^-ti, the same, that sort, shao^, few, a small number. 

that style, that fashion. chiu^-i'ien^, to-day. 
hsien*-tsai*, now, at present, at the ming^-t'ien^, to-morrow. 

moment. sa^-huang^, to tell lies, to speak 

shang*-li^-pai* , last week. falsely. 

shan^, a mountain. k'an*, to see, observe, also to 
to^-shao^, how many (lit. " many, think, consider. 

few "). kai^-tang^, ought, should, same as 

sA«*, a number. pi*-yao. 

hsin^, deep, very. shang*, to go to, move towards. 



VOCABULARY OF NEW WORDS 



47 



hsUeh^, to learn, to study. 

li*-ch'ten, profit, gain. 

i^-tien', a little, a fraction. 

mi*-/an*, cooked rice (the staple 
Chinese food except among the 
poorer classes where coarser 
grains and millet take the 
place of rice). 

kuo*-shih^, fault, error, transgres- 
sion. 

i^-ko*, one, a single, unity 

wan^-tuan^, all things, everything, 
the universe. 

tan*, but, still, yet, only. 

pu^-t'ung'^-i*, to differ. 

fin^-pu^-ch'u-lai^, I cannot see 
any difference (lit. " division 
or difference not out comes "). 

chiu', wine. 

shang*-pien, above, the upper 
side, on top. 

hsia*-pien, below, the underside, 
at bottom. 

hsien^, former, before, formerly. 

shen^-mo yang, what kind ? what 
sort of ? 

tso*-, last, past, as in 

tm*-chi*, oneself, self, used after 
personal pronouns. 

t'a^ tzu*-chi^, he himself, etc. 

tao*, to reach, up to, as far as. 

chia ^-hsia*. at base, at foot of. 

/»•, a Chinese mile (approx. a 
third of English mile). 

k'u', bitter, affliction, used as an 
emphatic, very. 

kao^, high, lofty, exalted. 



izu*, a Chinese character, a word 
or sign in native script. 

to^, rtiany, a large number. 

t'ien^, Heaven, the commonly- 
used word for day. 

tso^-t' ier}- , yesterday. 

tou^, all, every. 

ti^-hsi* (lit. " ground-details "), 
details, munite data. 

hai^-tzu', a small boy, a child, 
young person. 

k'ai^, to open, start, begin. 

k'ai^ min^, open the door. 

k'ai^ nien* shu^, start to study. 

hsiieh^-hsiao*, a school. 

kung^-fu^, leisure, holiday. 

i^-tien^-Srh, a morsel, a soup(on. 

hao^ hsieh^-ko*, a good number, a 
large number, many, numerous. 

met'' hsieh^-ko*, not many, few, 
a small number. 

shih' tsai*, truly, indeed. 

fa*-tzu^, method, plan, remedy. 

p'ing^-yu^, a friend, comrade. 

hao'-ti (adv. from the adj. hao', 
good), well, excellently. 

ch'iian^, all, complete, every. 

fSn^, to divide, differ (also " a 
minute "). 

ch'ih^-fan*, to eat. 

ho^, to drink. 

shuP, water. 

li*-tou^, inside. 

wai*-t'ou^, outside. 

i^ch'u* fang^-tzU^ , a house, a 
dwelUng. 

shih^-hou'rh*, time, period, age. 



Exercise 4a. 

{a) Wo^ mei^ yu^ na*-ko* tung^-hsi^. 

(b) Ni^-men^ pi*-yao* kao^-su '^wo^-min^. 

(c) NP yu^ shSn^-mo yang^ tung^-hsi ? Wo^ yao chihHao^. 
{d) T'a^-men^ hsien^-isai* na^-li^ ch'ii^ ? Shang* chung^- 

kuo^ ch'u*. 

(e) NP-men^ tso* shirP-mo yang* iung^-hsi^ ni ? 



48 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

(f) Shang^-li^-pai* wo^ met* k'an* chien* t'a^ liao. 

(g) Ni^ pu^ chih^-tao, t'a^ pu^ chih^-tao, wo^ pu^ ckih^-tao 
k'o^ i^ wen* shin^-mo jin^-yao kao*-su wo^nicn ? 

{h) Ni^-men mei^ k'an^-chien la, wo^ tzu-chi k'an* pu^ 
chien*^ la, tsen^ yang* nSng chih}-iao ni ? 

{i) Na*-ko tung^-hsi pu hao, pieli^ kei^ wo^ na* yang*-ti. 

(j) Ta^ chS*-lPiao* na* shan^ chiao^-hsia* pu^ chih^-tao yu* 
to^-shao^ li^ shu^. 

{k) T'a^-ti tung^-hsi tau^ pu^ hao^. 

{I) T'a^ mei^ yu^ shSn^-mo tung^-hsi. 

(m) To^ t'ien^ t'a^ mei^ lai^ liao. 

(n) Na'^ shari^ shih^ tsai* pu^ sMn^ kao^. 

(o) Hsien*-tsai* chung-kuo puH-yang* ts'ung^ ch'ien^ ti^ 
shih^-hou'rh. 

(p) Yu^-ti shuo^ mei^ yu^-ti, tnei^-ti shuo^ yu^-ii, »a* pu^ 
shih'^ wo^ shuo^ H^. 

{q) Pieh^ sa^ huang^. 

{r) Wo^ pu^ chih^-tao ti^-hsi*. 

(s) Che* shih* jSn^ jen^ tou^ pi*-yao chiK^-tao. 

{t) Ni^ shuo^ che* hua* shuo^ na* hua*, wo^ tzu*-chi fin^~ 
pu-ch'u-lai^. 

(u) Wo^ k'an* pu^ chien* na* tung^-hsi. 

{v) Wo^ wen* t'a^ tan* t'a^ mei^ td^-ying {'hui^ fu). 

{w) Wo^ k'an* pu}- chien* hsiao^-tzU*. 

{x) Wo^ pu^ chih^-tao shih* shui^. 

(y) Mei^ shen^-mo li*-hsi. 

{z) Wo^ mei^ kung^-fu^ k'an* shu?-. 

Exercise 5a. 

(a) T'a^ yu^ hao^-hsieh^-ko* tna^. 

(b) T'a^ mei^ shen^ mo, tan yu^ i-tien^-Srh mi^-fan*. 

(c) T'a^ mei^yu^ hsieh^-ko* kuo*-shih^. 

(d) ShihUsai'* mei^ fa*-tzu^. 



EXERCISES 49 

(e) NP k'an* chS*ko- hao^ pu hao^ ? 

(f) Kao'^-su wo^ ni^ tso^-t'ien tso* shSn^-mo. 

(g) Wo^ kei ni^ k'an* ni^ k'o^ pieh^ kao*-su t'a^-min^. 

(h) Ni^ jo* pu^ ming^-pai, wSn* t'a}-mSn, Va^-men 
jo* pu^ chih^-tao chiu* win* wo^. 

(t) T'a^ men niing^-pai mo ? 

(j) NP mei^ i^-ko peng^-yu^. 

{k) Wan* wu* iso* ti hao^ liao, tan* tnei^ jin^ chih^-tao ti^ 
ch'iian^. 

{I) Ni^ pu}- k'an* chi* hai^-tzii kai^-tang men*-shu^ mo ? 

{m) Hsien*-tsai* 'hai^ mei^ nien* shu^, hsia*-li^-pai* i'a^ 
shang* hsiieh^-hsiao* ch'ii*. 

(») Wo^-men shuo^ che* hua* shuo^ na* hua* tan^ mei^ fa*- 

(o) T'a tsai hsueh^-hsiao* nien* shu} la. 

(p) Ni'^ kao*-su t'a^ k'uai* ch'u*-pa. 

(q) Wo^ hsien*-isai* yao* ken^ t'a^ shuo^-hua. 

(r) Na* ch' u* fang^-tzu li^-t'ou yu^ hao^-hsieh^-ko* jen^. 

(s) Wai*-t'ou mei^ jen^. 

(t) Ni^ ch'ih} la-fan* mei^-yu^ ? 

(«) Wo^-men ch'ih^-fan*, t'a^-mSn ho^ chiu^. 

(v) Hsien*-tsai* shih* ch'ih-fan* ti^ shih^-hou'rh. 

(w) Kei t'a^ shui^; t'a^ yao ho^. 

(x) San-t'ien to^; t'a^ mei^ ch'ih^-fan* liao. 

(y) Ni^ jo* k'uai* lai^ wo^ kao*-su ni^. 

{z) Kao*-su t'a^ wo^-ii hua*. 

Exercise 4b. 
{a) I have not that thing. 
(6) You (plural) must tell us. 

(c) What sort of thing have you ? I want to know. 
{d) Where are they going now ? (They are going) to 
China. 

{e) What is that thing you have done ? 



60 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

(/) I did not see him throughout last week. 

(g) You do not know. He does not know. I do not 
know. "Whom then shall we ask to tell us ? 

{h) You (plural) have not seen it, I myself cannot see 
it, how then can one know ? 

{{) That thing is bad ; do not give me any like it. 

(j) From here to the foot of that mountain, I do not 
know how many mUes it is. 

(k) All his things are bad. 

(/) He has not anything. 

(m) He has not come for many days. 

(n) That mountain certainly is not very high. 

(o) China nowadays is (certainly) not like it was in 
earlier times. 

(p) I am not the one to deny what is (or " is right ") and 
to affirm what is not (or is false). 

(q) Do not tell lies. 

(r) I do not know the details. 

(s) This is something that all men should know. 

(/) You may talk this way, you may talk that way, for 
myself I do not see any difference. 

(m) I cannot (quite) see that thing. 

(v) I asked him, but he has not answered. 

{w) I cannot see very small characters. 

{x) I do not know who it is. 

iy) There is not any profit. 

(z) I have no leisure for reading. 
Exercise 5b. 

(a) He has a great number of horses. 

(b) He has nothing but cooked rice. 

(c) He has not many faults. 

{d) Truly there is no help for it (no way out). 
(e) Do you think this good or bad ? 



EXERCISES 61 

(f) Tell me what you did yesterday. 

{g) (If) I let you see don't tell them. 

{h) If you do not understand, ask them ; if they do not 
know, ask me. 

(t) Do they understand it or not ? 

(j) You have not a single friend. 

{k) Everything (in the universe) was well made, but 
there is not a man who knows (of) everything. 

(1) Do you not think that this boy should study ? 

{m) At present he has not begun to study ; next week 
(however) he will go to school. 

(«) We may say this or that, but there is no help for it. 

(o) He studies at the school, or. He is at the school 
studying. 

(P) You tell him to go away quickly. 

{q) I want to speak to him now. 

(r) In that house there is a great number of men. 

(s) Outside there is no one. 

(t) Have you yet eaten your rice ? 

(This is a very common greeting amongst the Chinese. 
It actually takes the place of Good-morning ! " or 
How are you ? " amongst us.) 

(m) We are eating ; they are drinking wine. 

{v) Now it is meal-time. 

{w) Give him water ; he wants to drink. 

(x) For more than three days he has not eaten food. 

(y) If you come quickly I will tell you. 

(z) TeU him what I say. 

LESSON 3. 

Numerals and Adjectives. 
25. Chinese enumeration is a very simple matter. One 
has merely to learn the niunerals from one to ten and four 



62 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

others, and, remembering that the Chinese use the decimal 
system, the rest is easy. The following is a list of the 
cardinals : — 

one, i^. six, liu*. 

two, Srh*. seven, ck'i^. 

three, san^. eight, pa^. 

four, ssu* nine, chiu^. 

five, wu^. ten, shih^. 

One hundred is pai^. 
One thousand is ch'ien^. 
Ten thousand is wan*. 
One million is V-pai^ wan^i.e., one hundred ten thousands.) 

26. Such is all the material required for simple enumera- 
tion in Chinese. There is, however, an alternative number 
for the cardinal " two " — i.e., that while in counting from 
" one " to " ten " erh*^ is used, when speaking of two of 
anything one employs the word liang^ which also means 
" two ", " a pair," " duality," etc, 

27. Generally, however, the numbers are recited with 
the suffix " -ko* " as follows : — 

i^-ko*, one (of anything). liu*-ko*, six (of anything), 

liang^-ko*, two ,, ch'i^-ko^, seven ,, 

san^-ko*, three ,, pa^-ko*, eight 

ssu*-ko^, four ,, chiu^-ko'^, nine ,, 

wu^-ko^, five ,, shih^-ko*, ten ,, 

28. On arriving at " ten " the procedure is quite simple, 
the order of the Chinese words being " ten-one, ten-two," 
and so on to " twenty " whence one goes on " twenty-one, 
twenty- two," etc., thus : — 

shih^-i^-ko'^, eleven. Srh*-shih^-i^-ko*, twenty-one. 

shih^-Srh'^-ko* , twelve. erh*-shih^-erh*-ko*, twenty- two. 

shih^-san^-ko*, thirteen. Srh^-shih^-san^-ko , twenty-three. 



NUMERALS AND ADJECTIVES 53 

shih^-ssu*-ko*, fourteen. Srh*-shth^-ssu*-ko*, twenty-fonr. 

shih^-wu^-ko^, fifteen. erh*-shih^-wu^-ko*, twenty-five. 

shih^-liu*-ko^, sixteen. irh^-shih^-liu^-ko*, twenty-six. 

shih^-ch'i^-ko*, seventeen. erh*-shih^-ch'i^-ko*, twenty -seven, 

shih^-pa^-ko^, eighteen. erh'^-shih^-pa^-ko^, twenty-eight. 

shih^-chiu^-ko^, nineteen, irh^-shih'^-chiu^-ko'^, twenty-nine. 

Srh*-shih^-ko*, twenty. san^-shih^-ko*, thirty. 

29. This process is regular up to one hundred and 
" ninety-nine" will therefore be chiu^-shih^-chiu^-ko^ followed 
by i^ paP. One hundred and one is i^-paP-i^-ko\ and so 
on through the hundreds to ch'ien}, thence again to wan* 
and on to the completion of the million i^ pai^ wan*. 

30. The ordinals are formed in two ways and are as 
simple as the cardinal numbers. The word ti* is prefixed 
to the simple numeral thus : — 

ti*-i^, the first. ti^-chiu^, the ninth. 

ti^erh*, the second. ti^-shih^, the tenth. 

ti*-san^, the third. ti*-shih^-wu^, the fifteenth, etc. 

In the common speech one will often hear the numeral 
with ko* prefixed to ti^ the genitive particle thus : — 

V-ko*-ti^, the first ; liang^-ko*-ti^, the second ; etc., but 
this is vulgar and not to be recommended. 

31. Auxiliary Numerals or Numeratives. — As in 
Assyrian and several other languages, the Chinese interpose 
between the actual number and the name of the article 
described a sort of descriptive word which is called an 
" auxiliary numeral." Those acquainted with " Pidgin- 
English " will recall such expressions as " one-piecey- 
man," " one piecey-boat," etc. This is in general a trans- 
lation of the auxiliary mimeral which, owing to the large 
number of homophones in the Chinese language helps out 
the Colloquial by particularising the sound to convey the 



54 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

meaning intended. In Egyptian hieroglyphs one finds 
sjnnbols used as " determinatives," that is, signs used to 
fix in the mind the class into which the word immediately 
preceding falls. The Chinese have many words of a similar 
nature, intended to " determine " the class of the word 
immediately following. 

The word ko^, already familiar to the student, is the 
auxiliary of primary importance. But it may be used only 
with words of a certain class. It is chiefly confined to the 
numerals and to the word jSn^, " a man," although it will 
be met with elsewhere. The following is a list of those the 
student should certainly know and recognise : — 

Chih^ {" standing alone ") before boats, fowls, gems, etc., 
e.g.-i^ chih^ ch'uan^, a boat. 
i cMh^ chi^, a fowl. 
Feng^ (" to seal ") before letters, parcels, packets, etc. — 

V- feng^ hsin*, one letter. 
Chien^ {" a room, an apartment "), before houses, build- 
ings, yards, gardens, rooms, etc. — 
i^ chieti^ fang^-tzu, a house. 
san^ chien hua^-yuan^-tzU, three gardens. 
Chien* {" to divide ") for articles of clothing, wearing 
apparel, etc.: — 

i^ chien^ i^shang^, an article of clothing. 
Ko* {" one piece ") 1 for human beings, animals coins, 
(" one thing ") j boxes, fruit, watches, etc. — 
liu^-ko^ hsiang^-tzu, six foxes, hut 
erh^-paP jen^, two hundred men. 
K'o^ (a mark or order) before trees. — 
i^ k'o^ shu*, a tree, a single tree. 
i^ k'o^ hsiao^ shu*, a small tree, a shrub. 
Kuan^ (a reed, pipe, tube) before pens, pencils, flutes, and 
any small, round, tube-like articles. 



NUMERALS AND ADJECTIVES 55 

K'uai* (a piece of) before dollars, bricks, stones, etc. — 

ch'i^ k'uai* shih^, seven stones. 
Pa^ (to hold in the hand) before table cutlery, forks, 
spoons, knives, etc. — 

i^ pa^ tao^-tzu, one knife. 
P£n^ (a root, origin before books, etc. — 

V- pin^ shu^, a book. 
P'i^ {to pair) before mules, camels, donkeys, horses, etc. — 

na^ P'i^ ma^, that horse. 
T'ou^ (the head), before domestic animals — 
wu^ t'ou^ niu^, five cows. 
This word is also used to supplement many nouns, 
and not merely as a numeral adjunct, 
e.g., shih^-t'ou^, stone, rock, boulder. 
mu'^-t'ou^, wood, etc. 
Ting^ (summit, top), before hats, sedan-chairs,umbrellas, 
etc. — 

i^ ting^ chiao^-tzU, a sedan-chair, 
t'l ting^ mao*-tzu, a hat, a cap. 
Wei* (those upright, erect, gentlemanly, etc.), before 
cannon, heavy artillery, persons of rank, etc. — 
Srh'^ wei^ kuan}, two officials. 
ss«* wei*^ ta'^ p'^ao*, four heavy guns. 

32. Distributive Numerals. — Repetition is a constant 
factor in Chinese Colloquial, and the student can rarely go 
wrong if he repeats a noun in order to mark the distributive. 
A notable example is t'ien^ t'ien} lit., " day-day, "meaning 
every day, daily. 

ChS* shih^-hou'rh wo^ kao^-su m'^ ; t'ien^t'ien^chS^yang* 
iso*.. ht.. 

This time I will tell you ; every day do it this way (or like 
this.) 



66 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 

Distributions may be generally formed, however, by 
using the word ko'^ or the word mei^, both of which mean 
" each, every." The latter is the more usual in e very-day 
conversation : — 

MeP jin^ yu^ hao^-hsieh^-ko*, Each man had a large 
number. 
Ko* yu^ shu^ ch'ien^ jin^, Each had several thousand men. 

33. Adverbial Numerals. — These are formed by 
adding ts^ {" then ") to the simple numeral. Thus i^ tst^ 
firstly ; ssu'^ tst^ fourthly. Once, twice, etc., are formed by 
adding the words tz'u*", pien^ or hui^ to the cardinal as 
>i tz'u^ once ; liang^ pien^ twice ; safi^ hui^ thrice etc. 

34. Fractions. — These are headed by i^ pan^, meaning 
" a half." Other fractions are formed by an ingenious use 
of the word fen^ which originally means " to divide," hence 
" a division, a part." Every whole is considered as having 
10 parts, each part being called i^fen^. Thus f would be 
called Hu^fen^ — i.e., i%. A quarter would be expressed by 
the locution ss0-fen^ chih^ i^. This chih is the written 
language word for the colloquial ti^, the sign of the genitive 
case, and is used in circumstances where ti^ is by customary 
usage either inadmissible or clumsy. This would read 
literally " four part's one," that is, one of four parts, hence 
a quarter. Thus | would be ssu^-fen?- chih^ san.^ This 
word for " quarter," however, is not used in saying a 
" quarter of an hour " for which the special word k'o* 
(meaning fifteen minutes) exists. 

35. Adjectives. — In Chinese adjectives undergo no 
change for number, gender or case. It may be said that an 
adjective does not exist per se as is the case with any other 
part of speech. It is merely by position that a word is 
described as adjective, noun or verb. But in the simple 



NUMERALS AND ADJECTIVES 67 

sentence the adjective invariably precedes its noun as : — 

Hao^ jen^, A good man. 
Ch'ang^ kuan^, A long tube. 
Tfl* ho", A great river, etc. 

When the noun is one of quality, the Chinese adjective 
acquires a predicative force by the addition of a particle 
very similar to a relative. This office is filled by the 
versatile particle ii^ as : — 

Che^-ko t'ang^ shih^ ts'u^-ti, This sugar is coarse. 

It is usually not difficult to identify the adjective in a 
Chinese sentence, as the idiom is nearly the same as in 
English. As we do, the Chinese speak of " ill-fated," 
" long-headed," and similar locutions are daily to be heard. 
It may seem strange to many that precisely the same 
method of adjective-formation is in use in China as amongst 
ourselves. Many of our adjectives end in " able," and 
these in Chinese are fomied by an ordinar)' word with the 
prefix k'o^, meaning " able," " can," etc., k'o^ is, in effect, 
the equivalent or a synonym of neng^. Thus k'o^-hsiao^ 
(lit. " can laugh ") is " laughable," also hao^-hsiao^ (lit. 
love laugh) is " laughable," k'o^-wu^ (lit. " can-hate ") is 
' ' hateful, detestable . ' ' 

An idiom of frequent occurrence is the juxtaposition of 
two adjectives of the same or closely similar meaning to 
express one idea — e.g., lan^-to* (lit. lazy and slothful), 
meaning " lazy, idle." Another is the putting together of 
adjectives signifying opposites to make an abstract noun, 
as kao^ aP, which may mean " tall and short," or as in the 
sentence wo^ pu^ chih^-tao to} H^ kao^ aP, " I do not know his 
height." 

30. Comparison of Adjectives. — This presents no 
difficulty to the student. Comparison is formed by the 



68 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE. 

use of the word pv^ (to compare). Another way is to add a 
word signifying " more " such as kSng^, tsai*. etc. 
Chi^-ko pp na'^-ko hao^. \ This is better than 

This compared with that (is) good. J that. 



He gets lazier every 

day. 
That is big (but) this 

is bigger. 



T'a^ t'ienWien^ kSng^ lan^-to*. 
He day (by) day most lazy. 
Na^-ko ta^, che^-ko kSng^ ta*. 
That (is) great, this (is) more great. 

The superlative degree is expressed by {a) prefixing to the 
adjective an intensive such as ting^, hin^, chih*. meaning 
" very, exceedingly, utmost, furthest," etc. ; (b) by pre- 
fixing shih^-fSn^, lit. " ten parts (out of ten) " completely, 
altgoether ; (c) by suffixing such intrusives as hen^, shSng*, 
etc. 

Tsai* chung^-kuo^, chiu^ lung^ shan^ shih* ting^ kao^-ti^. 
The Chiulung mountains are the highest in China. 

Hai^ lu'^ chih'^ hsien^ (this hsien^ stands for wei^ hsien^, a 
common word for " danger "). (Literally, " The sea-road 
extremest danger "). The sea passage is most perilous. 

Che*^ shih^ shih^-fen^ hao^ (this is ten parts good). This is 
absolutely the best. 

LESSON 4. 

Pronouns and Exercises. 

37. We have already used in the exercises preceding the 

pronouns in common use. There are, however, one or two 

special observations yet to be made. The pronouns are 

as simple as the numerals are, and are used as follows : — 

Personal Pronouns. 

1st pers. sing. wo^ 1st pers. plur. wo^mSn^. 

2nd pers. sing. ni^ 2nd pers. plur. ni^-mSn^. 

3rd pers. sing. t'a^ 3rd pers. plur. t'a^-men^. 



PRONOUNS AND EXERCISES. 69 

These are unchanged in all their uses. The reflexive 
pronoun in all cases is tzu*-chi^, oneself, which is in reality 
a postposition : — 

I myself, Wo^ tzu*-chi^. 

You yourselves, Ni^-men^ tzii^-chi^, and so on. 

In common with what has been said before as to ellipsis, 
the reflexive is often used by itself — i.e., without the per- 
sonal pronoun in which case the latter is understood from 
the context and the reflexive is still actually a post 
position. 

38. A polite form of the 2nd pers. pronoun is nin^ or 
nin^-na, which is equivalent to " You, sir." Ju^, although 
sometimes used in polite phraseology is more a written 
language form. 

39. Ch'i^ as a polite form of the 3rd pers. pronoun is 
again a written language term and is very unusual save in 
the mouths of scholars. 

40. The personal pronouns are without gender, t'a^ is 
he, she or it. 

41. The possessive pronouns are formed from the per- 
sonal pronouns by the addition of ti to both singular and 
plural, thus : — 

T'a^-ti his, ni^-men-ti yours (plural), wo^mSn-tzH^-chi^-ti^ 
our very own. 

42. The Demonstrative pronouns are as already 
shewn : — 

Che'^-ko j this 1 and na^-ko ( that or 
[or these j \ those. 

There are others used by graduates and classical scholars 
but they are not in use among the people. , 

43. The interrogative pronouns are : — 



60 COLLOQUIAL CHINESE. 

Shui*, or more commonly, shen^-mo^ jSn^ "who" ?, or 
" what person " ? (with ti suffixed these make the in- 
terrogative " whose ? "). 

na^-ko^, which ? shen^-mo^, what ? 

44. There are pronominal forms widely used in Chinese 
which are not exactly pronouns, but honorific and depre- 
catory particles. Those will be dealt with in a later section. 

45. There is no relative pronoun in Chinese. The 
effect of the relative is achieved either by dual sentences in 
juxtaposition or by a circumlocution. 



AN 
ENGLISH AND CHINESE VOCABULARY 

IN THE 

PEKINGESE AND CANTONESE LANGUAGES. 

FOREWORD. 

There is a widespread belief that Pekingese and Cantonese 
are but "dialects" of the Chinese language, but this is 
altogether erroneous. For this reason this vocabulary is 
prepared in the two languages, so that whether north or 
south be the destination of the traveller, he may be able 
to make his way. No system of marking the tones by 
number (though efficient in the case of the northern speech), 
will be effective in the language of the south as there the 
tones are greater in variety and more minutely distinguished. 
Hence no tone-marks have been given in the Cantonese 
column. The enunciation and pitch must be learned from 
a native or a good foreign speaker of Cantonese. The fact 
of the two columns differing widely in the expression of an 
English term will emphasise the fundamental difference 
between the two forms of speech. 



62 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English. 


Pekingese. 


Cantonese. 


A, an 


n-ko 


Yat-ko 


Able 


Ning^ ; hui^ 


Nang-tik 


Aboard 


Shang* ch'uan^ 


Tsoi-shun 


Above 


Shang*-t'ou^ 


Tsoi-Sheting 


Abuse, to 


Ma* 


Nao yun ka ; ma 
yun 


Accident 


Shih^ shan^ 


Gaw in 


Account 


Kuei* chi* 


Cheong muk 


Accountant 


Kuei* chi* yiian^ 


Cheong kwei 


Across 


Kuo* 


Wang 


Active 


Huo^ tung* It* 


Fai shaw 


Admiral 


Hai^ chiin^ shang* 
chiang^ 


Shtii ssu tei tuk 


Advise 


Piao^ ch'i^ i* chien* 


Hun {yun ka) 


Affection 


At* ch'ing^ 


Haw tsing 


Afraid 


Hat* p'a* 


Hung-pa ; hoy-pa 


Afternoon 


Hou*-pan-t'ien^ 


Ha ng ; ha chaw 


Afterwards 


Hou*-lai^ 


Haw loy ; tseong 
loy 


Again 


Tsai* ; yu* 


Tsoi 


Age 


Nien^-chi* 


Neen ke 


Agent 


Ching^-shou^ jSn^ 


Toy le 


Air 


K'ung^ ch'i* 


Te-he ; Hung- 
chung 


Alike 


Lei* ssii* 


Tung-yat-yaong 


Alarm 


Ching^-lo 


Hak-yat-keng 


Alas ! 


Wu^ hu^-ai^ tsai^ 


Pe tsoy 


All 


Tou^ ; ch'uan^ 


Tow ; yat tsung 


Almanac 


Li* shu} 


Tung shu ; wong 
lek 


Almond 


Hsing* jen^ 


Hang yun 


Almost 


Ch'a^ i^ tien^ 


Tseong kan 





VOCABULARY 


63 


English. 


Pekingese. 


Cantonese. 


Aloes 


Ch'en^ hsiang^ 


Cham heong 


Alone 


Tan^ ; ku^- 


Tok ; tok-yat 


Already 


P-ching 


Ya-tsang ; I-king 


Also 


Yeh^; hai^ 


Yik 


Alter 


Pien^ keng^ 


Kang koy 


Altogether 


F kung* 


Lung tsung ; yat 
koy 


Alum 


Pai^fan^ 


Pak fan 


Always 


Shih^-chung^ 


She-she 


Ambassador 


Ta" sMh^ 


Yam chat, wong 
chai 


Amber 


Hu^-p'o^ 


Foo pak 


Among 


Tsai^ li^-t'ou 


Tsoy chung kan 


Amount 


Chia^-Srh 


Kung kei 


Anchor 


Mao^ 


Nao 


And 


Ho\ ken^, t'ung^, 


Tung ; kung 


Anger 


Ch'i^, nu* 


Now he 


Animar (domes- 


Ck'u^-shSng 


Kun-shaw 


tic) 






Another 


PiehUi 


Tei-ee 


Answer 


Ta^-pien* 


Ui-taw-sun 


Ant 


MaU^ 


Ma-gei 


Arm 


Ko^-pei 


Shaw-pe 


Arms (milit.) 


Ping^-ch'i 


Kwan-he 


Army (infantry) 


Lu* chiin^ 


Sam-kwan 


Arrow 


Chien^ 


Tseen 


Arsenic 


P'i^-shuang 


Pei-seong 


Ascend 


Teng^ 


Sheong-huy 


Ash 


Hui^ 


Fooy 


Ashore 


Shang*' an^ 


Hong-shun 


Ask 


WSn* 


Man 



64 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English. 


Pekingese. 


Cantonese. 


Ass 


Lii^ 


Yat chek luy 


Assist 


Pang^, pang^-chu 


Seong pong 


Astronomy 


T'ien^ wen^ 


Teen man 


Auction 


Chiao* mat* 


Taw mat 


Author 


Cho^ tsu^ chia} 


Tsok shu kay 


Avail 


Li* yung 


Cheem 


Average 


P'ing^ chufi^ 


La chay 


Awake 


Hsing^-lo 


Seng he lei 


Away 


Ch'ii^-lo 


Kuy 


Axe 


Fu^-tzu 


Yat pa foo taw 


Back 


B 

ChP-niang 


Pooy tsek 


Bad 


Pu^-hao^ 


M how 


Bag 


K'ou^-tai 


Yat ko toy 


Baggage 


Hsing^-li 


Hang le 


Bake 


K'ao^ ; shao^ 


Hong ; kok 


Balance 


Fu^-yii 


Fong-cheng 


Bale 


P pao 


Yat paou 


Ball 


Ch'iu^-irh 


Po-kaw 


Bamboo 


Chu^-tzu 


Yat tew chuk 


Banish 


T'u^ tsui* 


Chung-kwan 


Barbarian 


Yeh^ man^ 


E yun 


Barbarous 


Wu^ li^ i* ti^ 


Tung-man 


Barber 


Li^fa^shih^ 


Tei taw low 


Bargain 


Mai^ mai* ch'i* 
yileh} 


Shuet ting ka tseen 


Bark (v.) 


Yao^ 




„ (of trees) 


Shu* p'i^-tzii 


Shu pe 


Barley 


Ta* mat* 


Tax mak 


Barrel 


T'ung^-tzii 


Pe pa tung 


Barter 


Chiao^ huan* 


Tuy oon 



English 

Basin 

Basket 

Bat (animal) 

Bathe 

Battle 

Bay 

Bayonet 

Be 

Beam 

Bean 

Bear, a 

Bear, to 

Beard 

Beat 

Beautiful 

Because 

Become 

Bed 

Bee 

Beef 

Beer 

Before 

Beggar 

Begin 

Behind 

Believe 

Bell 

Belly 

Below 

Beside 

Best 

Between 



VOCABULARY 
Pekingese. 

K'uang^-tzii 

Yen^-pien hu^ 

HsP-tsao^ 

Ta^ chang 

Wan^-tzii^ 

Ch'iang^-tzu'^ 

Shih* 

Liang^ 

Tou^-tzu 

Hsiung^ 

Shou* 

Hu^-tzii 

Ta^ 

Hao^ k'an* 

Yin^-wei 

Ch'ing^ 

I^ chang^ ch'uang^ 

Mi*-feng^-Srh 

Niu^-jou 

Pieh* 'rh chiu^ 

Ch'ien^-t'ou 

Hua?-tzu 

Ch'i^-lai 

Hou*-i'ou 

Ling^-tang 

Tu^-tzu 

Ti^-hsia 

Tsai* p'ang* pien^ 

Tsui* hao^ 

Tsai chung^ chien*- 



66 

Cantonese. 
Oon 
Lam 
For shu 
Set shun 

Ta cheongyat chun 
Hoy wan 
Yat che teet tseong 
Hei 

Ok leong 
Taw kok 
Yat chek yung 
Yung shu 
Soo 
Ta 
Me 

Yin wet 
Ching 

Shuy shong 
Mat Jung 
Gaw yok 
Pay tsaw 
Seen 
Hat-ec 

Hoy shaw (sow 
Haw peen 
Sun 

Yat ko chur.g 
Tow fok 
Ha tei 
Ling goy 
Tei yat che hoief 
rh Chung kan 



66 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Beyond 


P wai^ 


Haiej goy 


Bill 


P pp chang* 


Cheong muk tan 


Bind 


Kuo^-shang 


Chat 


Bird 


Niao^-erh 


Tseok new 


Birthday 


Sheng-jih 


Shang yat 


Biscuit 


Kan^ po ^-po 


Meen peng 


Bite 


Yao^ 


Gaou 


Bitter 


K'u^ 


Foo 


Black 


Hei^ 


Hak 


Blacksmith 


T'ieh^-chiang 


Ta teet tseong 


Blankets 


Chan^-tzu 


Yaong par cheen 


Blind 


Yen^ hsia}-lo 


Gan mang 


Blinds 


Lien^-tzii 


Chuk leem 


Blood 


Hsieh^ 


Heut 


Blow (v.) 


Kua} 


Chuy 


Blue 


Lan^ 


Lam shik 


Board 


Pan^-tzu 


Yat fai muk pan 


Boat 


P chih^ ch'uan^ 


Sam pan 


Body 


Sheri^-tzu 


Shun tei 


Boil 


Chu^ 


Pow 


Bold 


Yung^ 


Tat tarn yun 


Bolt 


Ch'a^kun'rh 


Moon shan 


Bond 


Ching*' shu^ 


Yak tan 


Bone 


Ku^-t'ou 


Kwat 


Book 


P pen^ shu} 


Shu 


Bookcase 


Shu^ koUzH 


Shu ka 


Boots 


Hsueh?-tzu 


Heue 


Borrow 


Chieh* 


Tsay loy 


Both 


Liang^-ko 


Leong ko 


Bottle 


P'ing^-tzii 


Po le tsun 


Bottom 


Ti^ 


Tei 


Boundary 


Chie¥ 


Kaou kai 





VOCABULARY 


e-: 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Bowels 


Ch' ang^-tzu 


Cheong tow 


Box 


Hsiang^-tzU 


Seong 


Boy 


Hai^-tzU 


Nam tsei 


Bracelet 


Cho^-tzu 


Show ak 


Braces 


Pei^ tai*-tzu 


Foo fai 


Brain 


Nao^-tzu 


Now tseong 


Branch 


Chih"- 


Shu che 


Brass 


T'ung^ 


Sheong iung 


Bread 


Mien^ pao^ 


Meen taw 


Break 


Ta^ p'o^ 


Ta Ian 


Breakfast 


Tsao^ fan^ 


Tsow fan 


Breast 


Hsiung^ P'u^-tzu 


Hung tseen 


Breeches 


K'u^-tzu 


Yat tew foo 


Breath 


Ch'i^ 


He 


Breeze 


Fing^ 


Fing set 


Bribe 


Hui^-lu 


Fooy chur 


Brick 


Chuan^ t'ou^ 


Tseng chune 


Bridge 


P tao^ ch'iao^ 


Yat tew kew 


Bridle 


Lung^-t'ou 


Ma-keong 


Bring 


Na^ . . . lai^ 


Ning loy 


Broad 


K'uan^ 


Foot 


Broker 


Ching^-shou jin^ 


Tsow king ke yun 


Broom 


T'iao^-chou 


Sow pa 


Brother 


Ko^-ko ; hsiung^- 

ti 
Shua^-tzu 


Hing-tei 


Brush 


Tsat 


Bucket 


T'ufjg^-tzU 


Tung 


Build 


Kai^ 


He 


Bullock 


Kung^ niu^ 


Yat chek eem gaw 


Bundle 


Pab^-irh 


Yat pao 


Burn 


Shao^ 


Shew 


Bury 


Mai^ 


Mai tsong 



}8 


COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Business 


Shih'^ 


Sze koan 


But 


K'o^ 


Wei ; tan 


Butcher 


T'u^ hu* 


Tow yun 


Butter 


Huang^ yu^ 


Gaw yaw 


Butterfly 


Hu^ t'ieh^ 'rh 


Oo teep 


Button 


Niu^-tzu 


Naw kaw 


Buy 


Mai^ 


Mai fo 


Cabbage 


C 

Pai^ ts'ai^ 


Yay tsoy 


Cabin 


Ch'uan^ is'ang^ 


Tsoang wei 


Cable 


Lan^ ; hai^ hsien* 


Naou lam 


Cage 


Lung^-tzu 


Yat ko tseok lung 


Cake 


Kao"^ 


Kei tan kow 


Calculate 


Ho^-suan 


Sum 


Call 


Chiao^ 


Kew 


Calm 


An^ hsin^ 


Fung-sik 


Camel 


LoWo 


Yat chek lok to 


Camp 


Ying^-p'an 


Kwan ying 


Can 


Neng^; hui^ 


Tak ; isow tak 


Canal 


Shui^ tao^ 


Chap ho 


Candle 


La'' 


Lap 


Candlestick 


La* t'ai^ 


Lap chuk toy 


Cane 


T'Sng^-tzu 


Yat che peen koan 


Cannon 


P'ao* 


Tai paou 


Canvas 


Ts'u^ pu* 


Fan pow 


Cap 


/I ting^ mao*-tzu 


Yat teng mow 


Captain (army) Lu*^ chiin^ ta^ wei* 


Shune chu 


Card 


Ming^ P'ien'^ 


Pai teep 


Careful 


Yung'' hsin^ 


Sew sum 


Cargo 


Huo* 


Shune fo 


Carpet 


T'an^-tzu 


Te cheen 





VOCABULARY 


69 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Caxpenter 


Mu*-chiang 


Muk-tseong 


Carriage 


(/2- liang^) ch'e^ 


Ma chay 


Carrot 


Hung^ lo^-po 


Hung lo pak 


Carry 


Yiin^-pan^ 


Por tok 


Cartridge 


Ch'iang^ yii^-tzu 


Chat isei 


Cash 


Ch'ien^ 


Tung tseen 


Cask 


Mu^ t'ung^-tzu 


Tung 


Cat 


Mao^ 


Maou ee 


Catch (ball) 


Chieh^ ch'iu^ 


Chok 


Cause 


Yuan^-ku 


Une koo 


Cautious 


Hsiao^-hsin 


Sew sum 


Cave 


Tung*-tzii 


Shan uei 


Cellar 


Ti* yin^-tzu 


Yan kan fong 


Certain 


Ch'tieh* shih^ 


Tik koak 


Chain 


So^ lien*-tzu 


Teet leen 


Chair 


P-tzu 


E 


Chalk 


Pai^ fen^ 


Fo shek fun 


Change 


Huan* 


Kang koy 


Charcoal 


T'an* 


Fo tan 


Chase 


Ckui^ 


Chuy koan 


Cheap 


P'ien^-i 


Ka tseen peng 


Cheat 


PSng^-tzu skou^ 'rh 


He peen 


Cheese 


NaP ping^ 


Che-se 


Cheek 


P'i^ lien* 


Yat fai meen chu 


Chess 


Ch'i^ 


Ke 


Chest 


Hsiung^ p'u^-tzu 


Ee seong 


Chew 


Chiao^ 


Tseok haw 


Chicken 


Hsiao^ chi^-tzii 


Kei tsei 


Child 


HaiUzu 


Set matt isei 


Chin 


Hsia*-pa 


Ha pa 


China 


Chung^ kuo^ 


Chung kwok 


Chocolate 


Ka}-fei t'ang^ 


Chi-ko-lat 



70 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Chopsticks 


K'uai'^-tzu 


Fai-tzu 


Christianity 


Chi^-tii chiao* 


Teen chu kacu 


City 


Ch'eng^ 


Sheng 


Civil 


Ho^ ch'i^ 


Yaw lee ee 


Clean 


Kan^-ching 


Koan tseng 


Clerk 


Shu^-pan 


Shu-pan 


Clever 


Ling^ 


Nang koan 


Climb 


Teng^ kao^ 


Pan sheong 


Cloak 


Tou^-P'eng 


Tai law 


Clock 


{P chiaY chung^ 


She shin chung 


Cloth 


' P«« 


To lo yung 


Clothes 


P-shang 


E sheong 


Coal 


Mei^ 


Mooy tan 


Coat 


{P chien^) kua^-tzu 


Tai sham 


Cock 


Kung^ chi^ 


Kei kung 


Coffee 


Ka?-fei 


Ka fe 


Coflftn 


Kuan^-ts'ai 


Koon tsoy 


Cold 


LSng^ 


Lang 


Collar 


Ling^-tzii 


Ka how 


College 


Hsiieh^-yuan^ 


Shu une 


Colour 


Yen'^-sS'- 


Gan-shik 


Column 


Chu^-tzii 


Yat hong 


Comb 


Mu^-shu 


Yat chek she 


Come 


Lai^ 


Ne lei 


Commerce 


T'ung^ shang^ 


Maw yik 


Committee 


Wei^ yiian^ 


Chu sze leet wei 


Common 


Kung^ ti^ 


Ting lei 


Companion 


Pan^ 'rh 


Tung Poon 


Company 


Pin^ k'o^ 


Kung sze 


Compare 


PiU-pi^ 


Pe kaou 


Compass 


Ting*' nan^ chSn} 


Lo kang 


Complain 


Pao^-yiian 


Sow une 





VOCABULARY 


71 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Compliment 


Ch'ing* 


Man haw 


Conceal 


Ts'ang^ 


To nik 


Confess 


JSn^ 


Chew yun 


Confine 


Ch'ii^ yii^ 


Shaw kum 


Conjurer 


Pien^-hsi fa^-irh- 

ti 
Ta^-ying 


Tew maou shan 


Consent 


Hang 


Consult 


Shang^-Uang 


Cham cheok 


Constable 


Hsiin^-pu 


Te pow 


Contest 


Chan^ chSng^ 


Seong chang 


Contract 


Ho^-t'ung 


Chap tan 


Contradict 


K'ang^ pien^ 


Peen pok 


Conversation 


Yen^ tz'u^ 


Tarn tarn 


Cook 


Ch'u^-tzu 


Chu tsze 


Coolie 


Kung^ jen^ 


Koon teem 


Copper 


T'ung^ 


Shur tung 


Copy 


Ch'ao^ hsieh^ 


Chaou say 


Cord 


Sheng^ tzu 


Yat tew shing 


Cork 


Juan^ p'i^ 


Chat 


Corner 


Chi^ chiao^ 'rh 


Kok 


Corpse 


Shih^-shou 


Sze-she 


Correct 


Tui^-lo 


Pan hang tunefong 


Cotton 


Mien^-hua 


Meen fa 


Cough 


K'o^-sou 


Kat saw 


Count 


Po^ chueh^ 


Sune show 


Country 


Kuo^ 


Kwok 


Cover 


Kai^-shang 


Kum ; koy 


Covet 


T'av} 


Tarn 


Cow 


Mu^niu^ 


Gaw 


Coward 


Fa^ jin^ 


Mow tam 


Crab 


P'ang^-hsieh 


Yat chek hat 


Crackers 


Pien^ 


Paou tseone 



72 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Cream 


Nai^ p'i^ -tzu 


Gaw nai yaw 


Credit 


Hsin* yung* 


Shay hiiy 


Crime 


Tsui* 


Tsoy 


Criminal 


Fan* jSn^ 


Fan isuy yun 


Crimson 


Tz0 hung^ 


Tai hung shik 


Crockery 


Tz'u^-ch'i 


Tsze he 


Crooked 


Wai^-lo 


Wan hok 


Crop 


Chuang^-chia 


Tsow 


Crow 


Lao^-kua 


Low a 


Cruel 


Nueh* tai* 


Tsan yun 


Cruise 


Hsiin^ hai^ 


Yaw sha 


Crush 


Tsa' 


At Ian 


Cry 


K'u^ 


Ham hok 


Crystal 


ShuP-ching 


Shuy tsing 


Cuckoo 


K'o^-ku 


Pan kaw tei 


Cucumber 


Huang^-kua 


Wong kiva 


Cunning 


KueP cha* 


To kei 


Cup 


Pei^ 


Pooy 


Curiosity 


Hsi^ han^ wu*-Srh 


Koo tung 


Curtain 


Chang*-tzu 


Leem 


Cushion 


Tien*-tzii 


Yuk tsze 


Custom 


Kuan* hsi^ 


Kwei kuy 


Cut 


La^ 

D 


Koat 


Dagger 


{P pa^) hsiao^ tao^ 


Tune tow 


Daily 


T'ien^ t'ien^ 


Yatyai 


Damage 


Sun^ 


Fan yun 


Damp 


Ch'ao'^ ch'i* 


Shap 


Dance 


T'iao* wu^ 


Tew he 


Danger 


Hsien^ 


Get heem 


Dark 


Fa^ hei^ 


Yay hak 





VOCABULARY 


1 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Date 


Jih^-tzti 


Yat how 


Day 


Tieri^ 


Yat tsze 


Dead 


Ssu^-lo 


Sze lew 


Deaf 


Lung^ 


E lung 


Dear 


Kuei'^ 


Ka tseen kwei 


Death 


Ssu^ 


Sze mong 


Debate 


T'ao^ lun^ 


E lun 


Debt 


Chai* 


Foo heem 


Decapitate 


Chan^ 


Cham taw 


Deceit 


Hua^ 


Cha gei 


Decide 


Ttng^-kuet 


Fun tune 


Deck 


Ch'uan^ mien^ 


Shune tsong pan 


Decrease 


Chien* shao^ 


Kam shew 


Deduct 


Ch'u^ 


Kaw chu 


Deed 


Ho^-t'ung 


Kei 


Deep 


Shev} 


Shum 


Deer 


(/I chih}) lu* 


Luk 


Defendant 


Pei^ kao* 


Pe kow 


Degrade 


Chiang* chi^ 


Kong kap 


Degree 


Tu*-shu 


Tei tow 


Delay 


Tan^-wu 


Tarn kok 


Deliver 


Chiao^ fu* 


Kaw 


Depend (on) 


Chang*-cho 


E lai 


Desert (land) 


Sha} mo* 


Yatte 


Desk 


Hsieh^ tzti* cho^-irh 


Say tsze seong 


DevU 


Kuei^ 


Mo kwei 


Dew 


Lu* shui^ 


Low shuy 


Diamond 


Chin^ kang^ tsuan* 
'rh 


Kum kong 


Dice 


Shai^-tzu 


Shir tsze 


Dictionary 


Tz0 tien^ 


Tsze teen 


Die 


Wang^ ; ssii^ 


Sze mong 



73 



r4 


COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Different 


Ch'a} ; pzi* t'ung^ 


Im toong 


Difficult 


Nan^ 


Nan 


Dig 


p-ao^ 


Kwat 


Digest 


Hsiao^-hua 


Sew-shik 


Diligent 


Ch'in^ 


Kan 


Dinner 


Wan^ fan* 


Man tsan 


Dirt 


Ni^ 


Net 


Dirty 


Ang^-tsang 


M koan tseng 


Discharge 


Tzu^ 


Tzse huy 


Discount 


Che^-k'ou 


Kaw taw gun 


Dish 


P'an^-tzu 


Oon 


Dislike 


Hsien^-hsi 


M oy 


Dismount 


Hsia* 


Ha 


Dissatisfied 


Pu^ man^ tsu^ 


Mow eem tsuk 


Dissipated 


Lang* fei* 


Fong sze 


Dissolve 


Hsiao^ 


San 


Distant 


Yuan^ ko^ 


Une 


Distinguish 


Fen^-pieh 


Fun peet 


Distribute 


Fen^ p'ei* 


Fun pai 


Ditch 


P tao* kou^ 


Teen tsun 


Dive 


Cha^ ming^-tzU 


Me shuy 


Do 


Tso* 


Tsow 


Doctor 


P-sheng 


E-shang 


Document 


Wen^ shu} 


Man shu 


Dollar 


Yang^ ch'ien^ 


Gan tseen 


Don't 


Pu* tso* 


Mok 


Door 


Men^ 


Moon 00 


Double 


Liang^ pei* 


Sheong kay 


Doubt 


P-huo 


Sze ee 


DoAvn 


Hsia* 


Fong ha 


Dragon 


{P t'iao^) lung^ 


Yat tew lung 


Drain 


{P tao*) kou^ 


Hang kuy 





VOCABULARY 




English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Draw (pull) 


La^ 


Lai chay 


Drawer (table) 


Ch'ou^-tH 


kwei tung 


Dress 


Ch'ing^ i^-shang 


Efok 


Dream 


Tso^ meng* 


Fat mung 


Drink 


Ho^ 


Yam 


Drive out 


Hung^-k'ai 


Koan chuk 


Drop 


Tiao^-hsia ch'U* 


Yat tik shuy 


Drown 


Yen^-ssii 


Cham sze 


Drug 


Yao*-ts'ai 


Yok tsoy 


Drunk 


Tsui^-lo 


Yam tsuy 


Drum 


Ku^ 


Yat ko koo 


Dry 


Kan^ 


Koan 


Duck 


{P chih) ya}-tzii 


Ap 


Dumb 


Ya^-pa 


A-tsze 


Dust 


Ch'en^ t'u^ 


Chun oy 


Duty 


/* wu* 


Pun fun 


Dwelling 


Chu^ chai^ 


Koon sho 


Dye 


]an^ 


Eem pow 


Each 


E 


Mooy 


Ear 


t.Yh^-to 


Ee-to 


Early 


Tsao^ 


Tsow 


Earth 


Ti* ch'iu^ 


Te chun 


East 


Tung^ 


Tungfong 


Easy 


Jung^-i 


Yung-ee 


Eat 


Ch'ih} 


Shik 


Eclipse 


Jih*-shih^ 


Yat shik 


Eel 


Shan* yu^ 


Sheen u 


Eight 


Pa> 


Pat 


Egg 


{Chi^) tan* 


Kei tan 


Elephant 


Hsiang* 


Yat chek tseong 



75 



76 



COLLOQUIAL CHLVESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Emperor 


Huang^-shang 


Wong-fei 


Employ 


Yung* 


Yung 


Empty 


K'ung^ 


Hung 


End 


Chung^ chii^ 


Shaw me 


Enemy 


Ch'ou^ jen 


Tik yun 


Enough 


Kou* 


Tsuk 


Enquire 


Ta^-t'ing 


Cha man 


Enter 


Chin* 


Yap 


Envelope 


Feng^-t'ao*-erh 


Shu Jung 


Envy 


Chi*-tu 


Tow-ke 


Equal 


Ping* chia* ch'i^ 
ch'U^ 


Tung yat yaong 


Escape 


T'ao^ P'ao^ 


Tsaw iir lat 


Evening 


Wan^-shang 


Ai man 


Everlasting 


Yung^ yilan^ 


Wing une 


Every 


Mei^ 


Kok 


Evidence 


Shih* chi* 


Haw kung 


Examine 


Tiao^ ch'a^ 


Cha chat 


Example 


Pang^-yang 


Yat-ko yaong-tsze 


Exercise 


Huo^-tung shen^- 

t'i^ 
Fei* yung* 


San Pow 


Expense 


Shai yung 


Experience 


Chien*-shih 


Tsap-leen 


Export 


YUn*-ch'u-ch'ii* 


Chong fo chut haw 


Extinguish 


Mieh* 


Meet 


Extraordinary 


Fei^ ch'ang^ 


Chut ke 


Eyes 


Yen^-ching 


Gan tseng 


Face 


F 

Mien* mao 


Meen 


Factory 


Tso^-fang 


Yat kan hong 


FaU 


Shih^ wet* ; tiao*- 
hsia ch'ii* 


Teet lok lei 





VOCABULARY 


11 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


False 


Chia^ 


Ka kay 


Family 


Chia^ 


Ka kune 


Famous 


Yu^ ming^-ti 


Yaw ming shikyun 


Fan 


{n pa^) shanUzu 


Yat pa sheen 


Fat 


Fei^ 


Fe 


Father 


Fu*-ch'in 


Foo 


Fault 


Ts'o^-rh 


Yaw kwo 


Favour 


£w^ hui'^ 


Yun tsing 


Fear 


P'a* 


Pa 


Feast 


(/I cho^) hsi^ 


Foon yaw 


Fee 


Kuei^ fei'^ 


Chaw tap 


Feed 


Wei* 


Yaong haw 


Female 


MuUi 


Mow-te 


Fetch 


NaUai 


Ning 


Fever 


Jo* ping* 


Fat shew peng 


Few 


Shao^ 


Mow ke to 


Field 


(/I k'uai*) fien^ ti* 


Yat maw teen 


Fig 


Wu^ hua^ kuo^ 


Mow fa kwo 


Fight 


Ta^ chia* 


Ta kaou 


Fill 


Ch'Sng^ man^ 


Cham moon 


Fine (n.) 


Fa^ 


Fat gan 


Finger 


Chih^-t'ou 


Yat chek shaw che 


Finish 


Wan^ 


Tsow une 


Fire 


Huo^ 


Fo 


First 


T'ou^ i^-ko 


Tei yat 


Fish 


YU^ 


U 


Fist 


Ch'ilan^-t'ou 


Kune taw 


Fit (proper) 


Hsiang^ tang^ 


Pun tang 


Fix 


Chih^ ting* 


Teng shat 


Flag 


{n kan^) ch'iUzu 


Yat che ke 


Flatter 


Ch'an^-mei 


Cheem me 


Flee 


T'o^ tsou^ 


Tow tsaw 



•78 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Flesh 


/OM* 


yok 


Floor 


Tt* pan^ 


Laief pan 


Flour 


Pai^ mien^ 


Meen fun 


Flow 


Liu^ 


Law 


Flower 


Hua^ 


Fa 


Fly (V.) 


Fei^ 


Fe sheong 


Fly (n.) 


Ts'ang^-ying 


Oo-ying 


Food 


Ch'ih^-shih 


Shik mat 


Fool 


Sha^-tzu 


Goy yun 


Foot 


Chiao^ 


Keok 


Forbid 


Chin^ chih^ 


Kum che 


Force 


Li^ 


Keong pik 


Foreign 


Wai^ kuo^ 


Yaong ; goy kwok 


Forget 


Wang^-chi 


Mong ke 


Forgive 


Jao^ 


Shay 


Fork 


Ch'a^-tzu 


Cha 


Formosa 


T'ai-wan 


Tai wan 


Fortune 


Ming^-yiin 


Tsow fa 


Forward 


Shang* ch'ien^ 


Sheong ii>een 


Foul 


Ni* 


Gak 


Foundation 


Chi^ ch'u^ 


Ke che 


Fowl 


Hsiao^ chi^-Srh 


Kei 


Fox 


Hu^-li 


Oo le 


Fraud 


P'ien* 


Hung peen 


Fresh 


Hsin^-hsien 


Sun seen 


Friend 


P'ing^-yu 


Pang yaw 


Frighten 


Hsia^-hu 


Hak keng 


Frog 


Ha^-ma 


Kap na 


Fruit 


Kuo^-tzu 


Kwo tsze 


Fry 


Cha^ ; chien^ 


Tseen chaou 


Fuel 


Jan^ liao^ 


Mok shai 



English 
Funeral 

Furniture 



Gain 

Gale 

Gamble 

Garden 

Gate 

Gather 

Gem 

Get 

Ghost 

Giddy 

Ginger 

Girl 

Give 

Glad 

Glass 

Gloves 

Go 

God 

Gold 

Good 

Goose 

Gradually 

Grain 

Grape 

Grass 

Gratitude 

Grave 



VOCABULARY 

Pekingese Cantonese 

Fa^ sang-tsang* Sung tsong 



79 



li^ 




Chia^-huo 


Kafo 


G 




Li* t2 


Lee sik 


MSng^ fing^ 


Tai fung 


Shua^ ch'ien^ 


Tow tseen 


Yuan^-tzu 


Fa une 


MSn^ 


Moon 


Chao^ chi^ 


Chak 


Chu^ pao^ yii^-ch'i 


Pow shek 


Te^ 


Lo 


Mo^ kuei^ 


kwei 


Fu^ tsao* 


Fow tsow 


Chiang^ 


Keong 


Nu^ hai^ 'rh 


Mooy tsei 


Kei^, sung* 


Pe 


Hsi^-huan 


Foon he 


Po^-li 


Po le 


Shou^ t'ao* 'rh 


Shaw lap 


Ch'u* 


Huy 


Shang* ti* 


Shin ming 


Chin^ 


Kum 


Hao^ 


How 


02 


Go 


Chien* chien*-ti 


Tseem tseem he 


Liang^-shih 


Kuk 


P'uWao 


Pow tei tsze 


Ts'ao^ 


Tseng tsow 


Kan^ ch'ing^ 


Neem yun 


FSn^ 


Fun mew 



iO 


COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 


English 


. Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Graze 


K'en^ ch'ing^ ts'ao^ 


Shik tsow 


Grease 


Yu^ 


Kow yaw 


Great 


Ta^ 


Tai 


Grieve 


Pei^ ai^ 


Shaw moon 


Grind 


Mo^ 


Mo lee 


Ground 


Ti* 


Tee tow 


Grow 


Chang^ 


Cheong tai 


Guess 


Ts'ai^ chung^ 


Chai tok 


Gum 


Chiao^ 


Shu kaou 


Gun 


Ch'iang^ 


Tseong 


Gunpowder 


H 


Fo yok 


Hair 


Mao^ 


Taw fat 


Half 


71 pan* 


Yat poon 


Ham 


Huo^ t'ui^ 


Fo tuy 


Hammer 


Ch'ui^-tzu 


Foo taw 


Hand 


Shou^ 


Shaw 


Handkerchief 


Shou^ p'a* 


Shaw kan 


Handwriting 


Pi^-chi 


Pat tsik 


Hang 


Kua^-ch'i^-lai 


Kwa hee 


Happy 


Hsi^-huan 


Yaw fok 


Hard 


Ying* 


Keen 


Hat 


Mao^-tzu 


Mow 


Hate 


Hen'' 


Unc chaw 


Have 


Yu^ 


Yaw 


Hay 


Kan^ ts'ao^ 


Koan tsaw 


Head 


Nao^-tai 


Taw shaw 


Heal 


Chih* hao^ 


E peng 


Hear 


T'ing^ 


Teng man 


Heart 


Hsin^ 


Sum 


Heat 


Jo' 


E^ 





VOCABULARY 




English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Heaven 


T'ien^ 


Teen 


Heavy 


Chung* 


Chung 


Heel 


Chiao^ kSn^-tzu 


Keok chang 


Height 


Kao^ ai^ 


Kow 


Hell 


Ti^yu* 


Tee yok 


Help 


Hsiang^ pang^ 


Seong pong 


Henceforth 


Ts'ung^ tz'u^ 


Tsze haw 


Hen 


Mu^ chi^ 


Kei na 


Here 


ChS*-li 


Ne chu 


Hide 


Ts'ang^ 


Tsong mat 


High 


Kao"^ 


Tsoy sheong 


Hill 


Shan^ 


Shan 


Hinder 


Fang^ ai* 


Lan cho 


Hire 


Ku* 


Yam 


History 


Shih^-chi 


Kong kam 


Hoist 


La^-ch'i-lai 


Chay 


Hold 


Na^ 


Cha kun 


Hole 


K'u^-lung 


Yat ko lung 


Home 


Chia^ 


Ka 


Honest 


Shih^-ch'eng 


Yun shai 


Honey 


FSng^ mi* 


Mat long 


Horn 


Chi^-chiao 


Kok 


Horse 


Ma^ 


Ma 


House 


Fang^-tzU 


Ok 


How? 


TsSn^-mo 


Teem yaong 


Hundred 


P pai^ 


Pak 


Hungry 


0*-lo 


Tow go 


Hurry 


Mang^ 


Tsuy 


Husband 


Chang*-fu 


Low kung 


Hypocrite 


Hsiang^ yuan*; 
Chia^ shan* 


Cha sheen 



81 



82 1 


COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 


English 


Pekingese 
I 


Cantonese 


I 


Go 


Ice 


Ping' 


Ping 


Idle 


Lan^-to^ 


Lan to 


If 


Jo' 


Yak 


Ignorant 


Pu* chih' 


Mow chi 


111 


Yu^ ping* 


Yaw peng 


Import 


Shu' ju* 


Yap haw 


In 


Tsai* 


Tsoy 


Inch 


(/I) ts'un* 


Yat tsun 


Include 


Han' yu^ 


Tsoy nay 


Increase 


Chia'-shang 


Kato 


Indecent 


Yeh^-tiao 


Fe lei 


Ink 


Mo'' 


Mak 


Inn 


Lii^ kuan^ 


Heei teem 


Inside 


Li^-t'ou 


Le taw 


Insolent 


Shih' ching* 


Gow man 


Insult 


Wu^ju* 


Hi foo 


Interest 


Li^-ch'ien 


Le tseen 


Intimate 


Ch'in'-mi 


Seong how 


Interpreter 


T'ung' i* kuan' 


Tung sze 


Investigate 


Chien^ ch'a^ 


Kei cha 


Iron 


T'ieh^ 


Teet 


Island ; 


Hai^ tao^ 


Hoy chaw 


Itch 


Yang^-yang 


Lai chong 


Ivory 


Hsiang* ya^ 


Tseong ga 


Jacket 


J 

Hsiao^ ao^-erh 


Chung sham 


Jam 


Kuo^-tzu chiang* 


Tong kwo 


Japan 


Jih* pen^ 


Yat pun kwok 


Jar 


Kuan^-tzu 


Yat ching 





VOCABULARY 




English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Jaw 


Sai^-chia 


Ga kwan 


Jest 


Shuo^ wan^ 'rh hua^ 


' Sew wa 


Joint 


Kung* yu^ ti^ 


Kwat tseei 


Journey 


Lu^ hsing^ 


Yat ching low 


Judge 


Ts'ai^ p'an* kuan^ 


Oan chat szc 


Juggler 


Pien*-hsifa^ 'rh-ii 


Chik fat 


Juice 


Shui^ 'rh 


Chap 


Jump 


T'iao^-kuo-ch'i* 


Tew kwo 


Just 


ChSng* tang^ 


Kung tow 


Justice 


Kung^-tao 


Kung tow che le 


Key 


Yao^-shih 


So she 


Kick 


T'i^ 


Tek 


Kidneys 


Shen^ tsang^ 


Yew tsze 


Kill 


Sha> 


Shal sze 


Kindred 


Ch'in^-ch'i 


Tsum tsik 


King 


Kuo^ huang^ 


Kwok wong 


Kiss 


Ch'i'n} tsui^-rh 


Tsun tsuy 


Kitchen 


Ch'u^ fang^ 


Chu Jong 


Kite 


Feng^-ching 


Che yew 


Knee 


Po^-leng kai^ 'rh 


Sat 


Kneel 


Kuei* 


Kwei 


Knife 


Hsiao^ taoHzH 


Tow 


Knot 


KoUa 


Keet 


Know 


Chih^-tao 


Che tow 


Knuckles 


Chih^ chieh^ 'rh 


Kune taw kwat 


Labour 


L 

Kung^ 


Tsow kung foo 


Lace 


Hsien^ 


Seen 


Lady 


T'ang^-k'o 


Tong hak 


Ladder 


T'i^-tzu 


Law tei 


Lake 


Hu^ 


Yat ko 00 



83 



u 


COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Lame 


Ch'iieh^-lo 


Pei keok 


Lamp 


{P chan^) ting^ 


Tang 


Land 


Ti^ 


Te fong 


Lane 


Hu^-t'ung*-rh 


Yat tew kai hong 


Language 


Hua* : kuo"^ yii^ 


Wa 


Lantern 


Teng^-lung 


Tang lung 


Last 


Tsui^ kou^ 


■ Shaw me 


Late 


Wan^ 


Man 


Laugh 


Hsiao* 


Sew 


Law 


Fa^ 


Fat 


Lazy 


Lan^-to 


Lan to 


Lead (Min.) 


Ch'ien^ 


Une 


Leaf 


Shu* ye¥-tzu 


Shu eep 


Leak 


Lou* 


Law shuy 


Learn 


HsUeh^ 


Hok 


Leather 


P'iUzu 


Shuk pe 


Leave 


Ch'u^fa?- 


Law lok 


Left (side) 


Tso^ 


Tso peen 


Leg 


Tui^ 


Keok nong 


Leisure 


Hsien^ k'ung*-rh 


Tak han 


Lemon 


Hsiang^ t'ao^ 


Ning mung 


Length 


Ch'ang^ tuan^ 


Cheong 


Letter 


(Pfeng^) hsin* 


Yat fung shu sun 


Level 


P'ing^ 


Peng 


Lid 


Kai* 'rh 


Koy 


Lie 


So} huang^ 


Tai wa 


Life 


Ming* 


Shang meng 


Lift 


Chu^-ch' i-lai 


Chaw he 


Light 


Jih* kuang^ 'rh 


Yat kwong 


Lightning 


Ta^ shan^ 


Sheep leng luy teen. 


Like 


Ai* 


Foon he 


Like (similar) 


Fang^-fu 


How sze 





VOCABULARY 


8 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Lime 


Pai^ hui^ 


Fooy 


Linen 


Pu' 


Ma pow 


Linguist 


Y0 hsiieh^ chS^ 


Tung sze 


Lion 


Shih^-tzu 


Yat chek tsze 


Lips 


Tsui^ ch'un^-tzii 


Haw shun 


Liquor 


Chiu^ 


Tsaw 


List 


Tan^-tzu 


Muk luk 


Litigation 


Tz'u^ sung* 


Ta koon sze 


Little 


Hsiao^ 


Set 


Liver 


Kan^ 


Koan 


Lizard 


Hsieh^ Hu^ tzu^ 


Yat tew eem shay 


Loan 


Chieh'^-k'uan 


Tsay chai 


Lobster 


Lung^ yii 


Tsum lung u 


Lock 


{/I pa^) so^ 


Yat pa so 


Locust 


Huang^-ck'ung 


Ma long kong 


Loiter 


Tan^-ko 


Taw law 


Long 


Ch'ang^ 


Cheong 


Look 


K'an* 


Hoan 


Looking-glass 


Ching*-tzu 


Chew shun keng 


Loose 


Sung^ 


Sung 


Loss 


Sun^ kai^ 


Sheet poon 


Loud 


Ta* sheng^ 


Tai sheng 


Louse 


Shih^ tzu 


Skat tsze 


Love 


Ai* 


Oy 


Low 


^l3 


Koan 


Luck 


Yun^-ch'i 


Kat 


Lump 


Kv} ting-rh 


Yat fai 


Lungs 


Fei* 

M 


Fei 


Mad 


FengUo 


Fat teen 


Magnet 


Tz'u^ shih^ 


Sheep shek 


Magpie 


Hsi^ ch'iao 


He tseok 



86 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Make 


Tso'' 


Tsow 


Male 


Kung^-ti 


Nam yun 


Man 


JSn^ 


Yun 


Manage 


Pan* 


Lew le 


Mandarin 


Kuan^ 


Koon foo 


Mane 


Tsung^ 


Ma tsung 


Manner 


Fang^ fa^ 


Ne yaong 


Manufactures 


Chih* tsao* p'in^ 


Shaw tsok mat keen 


Many 


To"^ 


How to 


Map 


Tu" 


Te le tow 


Marble 


Han^ Pai^ yii* 


Fa shek 


Market 


Shih* 


She taw 


Marriage 


Hsi^ shih* 


Tsuy tsun 


Mask 


Chia^ mien* chii* 


Sew meen hok 


Master 


Tung^-chia 


Ka chu 


Mat 


Hsi^ 


Tsek 


Material 


Chih^ 


Tsoy lew 


Mean 


Hsia*-chien 


Tseen 


Measles 


Ma^ chen^ 


Ma ching 


Measure 


Liang^-i-liang 


Leong kwo 


Meat 


Jou* 


Yok 


Medicine 


Yao* 


Yok tsoy 


Meet 


Hsiang^ hut* 


Chong cheok 


Melon 


Hsiang^ kua} 


Heong kwa 


Melt 


Jung^ ho^ 


Yung fa 


Memorandum 


Chieh^-lueh 


Ke sze tan 


Memory 


Chi*-hsing 


Ke sing 


Mend 


Chin* pu^ 


Fung pow 


Merchant 


Shang^-jin 


Sheong yun 


Mercury 


Shui^-yin 


Shuy gan 


Mercy 


En^ tz'u^ 


Oy leen 


Merry 


K'uai*-lo 


Sum foon he 





VOCABULARY 


8'; 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Messenger 


Sung* ksin*-ti 


Pow sun yun 


Metal 


Chin^ 


Kum 


Method 


Fa^-tzu 


Fong fat 


Metropolis 


Ching^ ch'ing^ 


King shing 


Middle 


Chung^ 


Chung 


Midnight 


Pan* yeh* 


Poon yay 


Midwife 


Shou^ shSng^ P'o^ 


Tseep shang po 


Mile 


Li^ 


Le 


Milk 


Niu^ nai^ 


U nai 


Mill 


Nien^-tzu 


Yat ko mo 


Mind 


Hsin^ 


Sum 


Mine 


K'uang* 


Kwong 


Miscellaneous 


Tsa^ 


Ling suy 


Miser 


Shou^ ch'ien* nu^ 


Han tsoy yun 


Misfortune 


Tsai^ 


Nan sze 


Miss (v.) 


Mei^ chao^ 


Shut 


Mist 


Wu* 


Een mow 


Mistake 


Ts'o*-lo 


Koo tso 


Mix 


Hun* ho^ 


Kaw wan 


Modern 


Hsin^ 


Kum 


Modest 


Tzu* ch'ien^ 


Che saw 


Moist 


ShW-lo 


Shap yun 


Monday 


Li^-pai i^ 


Lei pai yat 


Money 


Ch'ien^ 


Tseen 


Monsoon 


Ch'i*hou*fSng^ 


Lap ha nam Jung 


Moon 


Yueh* 


Uet 


More 


To^ 


To teem 


Morning 


Tsao^-ch'i 


Chew 


Mortgage 


Ti^ ya ^ 


Teen ok 


Mother 


Mu^-ch'in 


Mow tsum 


Mount (v.) 


Shang* (ma^) 


Sheong {ma) 


Mourning 


Ch'uan^ hsiao* 


Cheok haou 



88 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



Engush 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Mouse 


Hsiao^ hao'^-Izn 


Shek shu 


Mouth 


Tsui^ 


Haw 


Move 


. Tung'^ 


Yok tung 


Much 


T'ai* to^ 


Huy lo 


Mud 


Ni^ 


Chuk 


Multiply 


Fan^ chih^ 


Shing show 


Murder 


Ku* sha' 


Shut yun 


Music 


Yueh* 


Yam gok 


Musk 


She^ hsiang^ ' 


Shay heong 


Must 


Pi* 


Mow suy 


Mustard 


Chieh*-mo mien^ 
•rh 


Kai moot 


Mutton 


Yang^ jou^ 


Yaong yuk 


Myrrh 


Hut yao 


Moot yok 


Nail 


N 
Ting^-tzu 


Yat haw teng 


Nail (finger) 


Chih^-chia 


Che kap 


Naked 


Kuang^-cho shen^- 
tzu 


Chik shun 


Name 


Hsing* 


Sing 


Narrow- 


Chai^ 


Chak 


Native 


T'u^jen^ 


Poon te yun 


Natural 


Tzu^-jan 


Poon sing 


Nature 


Tsao* hua^ 


Sing 


Near 


Chin* 


Kan 


Nearly 


Ch'a^ i* tien^ 


Tseong kan 


Necessary 


Pi* yao* 


Moo suy 


Neck 


PoUzH 


Keng 


Necromancy 


Ting^ hsiang^-ti 


Sheng po 


Needle 


Chen^ 


Gan cham 


Neighbour 


Chieh^-fang 


Kak le kay yun 





VOCABULARY 


89 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Neighbourhood 


Tso^ chin* 


Lun shay yat pai 
te fong 


Nephew 


Chih^ 'rh 


Chat tsze 


Net 


P chang^ wang^ 


Yat cheong mong 


Never 


Lao^ pu* 


Mow yat she 


New 


Hsin^ 


Sun 


News 


Hsin^ wen^ 


Sun man 


Newspaper 


{P chang^) Hsir^ 
wen chih^ 


Sun man chc 


Niece 


Chih^-n0 


Chat nuy 


Night 


Yeh^ 


Yay man 


Nine 


Chiu^ 


Kaw 


No 


Pu*-chieh 


Mow 


Nod 


Tien^ t'ou^ 


Teem taw 


Noise 


Sheng^-yin 


Sheng heong 


Noon 


Shang^ wu 


An chaw 


North 


Pei^ 


Pak 


Nose 


PiUzu 


Pe 


Nostril 


Pi^-tzu yen^-rh 


Pe lung 


Not 


Pu" 


Im 


Note 


Chi^ tsai* 


Peen che 


Nothing 


Mei^ yu^ 


Mow sho wei 


Nourish 


Yang^ 


Yaong 


Novel 


Hsin^ hsien 


Sew shuet shu 


Now 


Hsien* tsai* 


U hum 


Number 


Shu'^-rh 


Shoo muk 


Nun 


Ni^-ku 


Ne koo 


Nurse 


Lao^ ma}- 'rh 


Nai ma 


Nut 


Ho^ 'rh 


Hat tsze 


Nutmeg 


Tou* k'ou* 


Yok kwo 



90 


COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Oak 




Hsiang* shu* 


Tsaong shu 


Oar 


P chang^ Chiang^ 


Yat che tseong 


Oath 


Shih* yiieh^ 


Shei 


Obey 


T'ing^ 


Tsun i 


Oblong 


Ch'ang^fang^ 'rh 


Cheong fong 


Obstacle 


Chang^ ai^ 


Fong 


Obstinate 


Ku^-chih 


Koo pan 


Ocean 


Yang^ 


Yaong 


Octagon 


Pa} leng^-rh-ii 


Pat kok yaong 


Oculist 


Y:n^ k-o t'l 


Ganfo 


Odd 


Ch'i^ i^ 


Ling suy 


Offend 


Te^-tsui 


Keen kwai 


Office 


Chii^ 


Ga moon 


Often 


Ch'ang^ 


To tsze 


Oil 


Yu^ 


Yaw 


Ointment 


Yao* yu^ 


Kow yak 


Old 


Lao^ ^ 


Low 


Olive 


Ch'ing^ kiio^ 


Shuy yung tsze 


Once 


n huP 


Yat tsze 


One 


n-ko 


Yat 


Only 


Chih^ 


Tok 


Open 


K'ai^-cho^ 


Hoy 


Opinion 


Chti^-i 


E keen 


Opium 


Ya^ p'ien yen^ 


A peen 


Opportunity 


Chi^ hui 


Ke coy 


Opposite 


Tui'^ ti^ 


Tuy meen 


Or 


Huo^ 


Yik wak 


Orange 


Chii^-izu 


Chang 


Order 


FSn^-fu 


Yow tsang yaw 
tsze 





VOCABULARY. 


91 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Ore 


K'uang* cMh^ 


Kaung 


Origin 


Lai^-yu 


Une poon 


Orphan 


Ku^-Srh^ 


Koo oy 


Other 


Pieh^ 


Peel ee 


Otherwise 


Pu^jan^ 


Tei ee yaong 


Ought 


Kai' 


Ying koy 


Out, go 


Ch'u^-ch'ii 


Chut 


Outside 


Wai^-i'ou 


Goy taw 


Oven 


Tsao^ 


Kuk low 


Overturn 


Tien^ fu* 


Fan Chune 


Owl 


Yeh* mao^-tzu 


Maou he taw ying 


Own 


Pen^jen^-ti 


Tsze ki 


Oyster 


Ko^-li 


Hok how 


Pack (v.) 


P 

Chuang^ 


Shaw shap hong le 


Padlock 


Yang^ so^ 


Yat pa shaw so 


Pagoda 


T'a^ 


Man tap 


Pain 


TSng^ 


Tung 


Painter 


Yu^-chiang 


Yaw tsat tseong 


Pair 


n tui* 


Yat tuy 


Palace 


Ta^ net* 


Kung teen 


Pan 


Kuo^ 


Fan wok 


Paper 


Chih^ 


Che 


Pardon 


Jao^-shu 


Shay kwo 


Parrot 


Ying^ ko'rh 


Ang ko 


Parsley 


Hsiang^ ts'ai* 


Une set 


Part 


Pin^fen 


Yat fun 


Partner 


Huo^-chi 


Fo ki 


Partridge 


Shih^ chi^ 


Chuk sze kei 


Pass 


T'ung^ hsing^ 


Kwo taw 


Paste 


Chiang*-tzu 


Tseong oo 



92 



COLU/QUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Pat (v.) 


P'aP- 


Pak 


Pawnbroker 


Tang^-P'u 


Tong pow 


Pay 


Kei^ ch'ien^ 


Keet 


Pea 


Wan^ tou^ 


Ho Ian taw 


Peace 


T'ai*-p'ing 


Ping oan 


Peach 


T'ao^-rh 


Tow tsze 


Peacock 


K'ung^-ch'iao 


Hung tseok 


Pearl 


Chien^ chu^ 


Chan chu 


Pebble 


Shih^-t'ou tz0 


'rh Go lun shek 


Peel (v.) 


Pao^ p'i^ 'rh 


Mok pe 


Pen 


P kuan^ pP 


Go mow pat 


People 


Jen^-chia 


Pak sing 


Pepper 


Hu^-chiao 


Oo tsew 


Perceive 


Chueh^-cho 


Tei keen 


Perfume 


Hsiang^ wei^ 


Heong lew 


Perhaps 


Huo* che^ 


Wak chay 


Permit 


Chun^ 


Chun 


Perspire 


Chun^ tan^ 


Chut hoan 


Perverse 


Ning* 


Kwai pik 


Petition 


Ping^-t'ieh 


Pan 


Pheasant 


Yeh^ chV- 


Shan kei 


Pickles 


Hsien^ ts'ai^ 


Sune kwo 


Pick (v.) 


Ti^ 


Tsze 


Picture 


Hua^'rh 


Yat fok wa 


Pigeon 


Ko^ tzu 


Bak kop 


Pill 


Wan^-tzu 


Yok une 


Pillar 


Chu^-tzu 


Yat tew chu 


Pillow 


Chen^-t'ou 


Cham taw 


Pin 


Peng^ chin^ 


Cham 


Pipe 


Yen^ tai^ 


Een toe 


Placard 


Chieh} t'ieh^ 


Nik ming 


Plain 


SuUi 


Sow 





VOCABULARY 




English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Plaintiff 


Yiian^ kao 


Une kow 


Plate 


P'an^-tzu 


Teep 


Play 


Wan^ shua^ 


Wan sha 


Pleasure 


Yti^ k'uai* 


Fai ooi 


Pluck 


Tan^-ch'i 


Tan kee 


Plum 


Li^-tzu 


Mooy 


Plunder 


Tsang^ 


Ta keep 


Pocket 


Tou}-tzii 


Sham toy 


Poem 


P chang^ shih^ 


Yat shaw she 


Point 


Chien^ 'rh 


Taw kok 


Poison 


Tu^ yao^ 


Tuk mat 


Pole 


Kan^-tzu 


Chuk kow 


Polish 


Chien* kuang^ 


Mo kwang 


Polite 


Yin^ ch'in 


How wa 


Poor 


Ch'iung^ 


Pan kung 


Poppy 


Ying^-su hua} 


Ang suk 


Pork 


Chu^-jou 


Chu yok 


Postage 


Yu^ fei* 


Sun tsze 


Postman 


Yu^ ch'ai^ 


Fai ma 


Pot 


Kuo^ 


Yat tsun 


Potatoes 


Shan^-yao tou* 'rh 


Ho Ian shu 


Pour 


Tao^-ch'u-lai 


Cham 


Power 


Li*-liang 


Kune Peng 


Practice 


Lien* hsi^ 


Tsap 


Praise 


Ch'ing^-tsan 


Paw tseong 


Pray 


Tao^ kao* 


Ke tow 


Prepare 


Yu*-pei 


Upe 


Present (v.) 


K'uei*-sung 


Sung pe 


Preserve 


Shou^ 


Shaw chu 


Price 


Chia*-ch'ien 


Ka tseen 


Priest 


Chi* ssu^ 


Wo sheong 


Print (v.) 


Yin* 


Hoan shat 



93 



94 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Prisoner 


Chien'- fan^ 


Chaw fan 


Procession 


Hsing^ Ueh* 


Hang heong 


Profit 


Li* i^ 


Chan gan 


Promise 


Ying J 


Ying shing 


Proof 


P'ing^-cM 


Pang kuy 


Property 


Ch'an^-yeh 


Ka eep 


Protect 


Pao^-hu 


Chew koo 


Proud 


Ao^-man 


Kew gow 


Province 


Sheng^ 


Shang 


Provisions 


Tsung^ fsS^ 


Shik mat 


Pull 


La} 


Chak 


Punish 


Chih* tsui* 


Che tsuy 


Purposely 


Ku* iUi 


Koo ee 


Pursue 


Chui^ 


Chuy 


Push 


T'lii^ 


Tuy 


Put (down) 


Ko^-hsia 


Fong ha 


Putty 


Q 


Tung yaw fooy 


Quail 


An^-ch'un 


Um chun 


Quality 


Teng^-tz'u* 


Pan 


Quarrel 


T'ai^ kang* 


Seong naou 


Quarry 


Shih^ t'ang^ 


Tsuy shek pooy 


Quarter 


Ssu* fen^-chih i^ 


Sze fun che yat 


Quay 


Hai^ pien 


Hoy peen pow taw 


Quench (fire) 


Chieh^ 


Kaw (fo) 


Question 


P wen* 


Man wa 


Quicksilver 


Shui^ yin^ 


Shuy gan 


Quiet 


An^-ching 


Oan tsing 


Quince 


Mu* kua^ 


Muk kwa 


Quiver 


Sa^-tai 


Tseen toy 



English 



VOCABULARY 95 

Pekingese Cantonese 



R 



Rabbit 


Tu^'rh 


Tow 


Radish 


Hsiao^ pai^ lo^-po 


Lo pak tsei 


Rag 


Sui^ p'u^-ch'en 


Lan pow 


Rain 


Y0 


U 


Rainbow 


T'ien^ kang^ 


Teen kong 


Raise 


Fu^-ch'i-lai 


He kuy 


Raisin 


P'u^-t'ou kan^'rh 


Pow tei tsze 


Rash 


Ch'ing^-tsao 


Mow mooy 


Rat 


Hao^-tzii 


Low shu 


Razor 


T'i* i'ou^ tao^ 'rh 


Tei taw tow 


Read 


K'an^ shu^ 


Neem shu 


Ready 


Hao^-lo 


Tsei pe 


Reason 


Li^ yu^ 


Tow le 


Rebellion 


Tsao^fan^ 


Tsokfan 


Receipt 


Shou^ chW^ 


Shaw tan 


Receive 


Shou^ 


Tseep shaw 


Reckon 


Suan'^ 


Teem show 


Recommend 


T'ui^ chien* 


Kui tseen 


Red 


Hung^ 


Hong 


Redeem 


Shu^ 


Shuk 


Reed 


Wei^-tzu 


Low wei 


Reflect 


Fan^ shi^ 


Fan chew 


Refuse 


T'uiUo 


Tsei 


Regulation 


Kuei^ ts^ 


Cheong ching 


Reject 


Chii^ chiieh^ 


Tuy wan 


Relation 


Hsiieh^ tsu^ 


Tsun tsik 


Rehgion 


Chiao^ 


Kaou 


Remember 


ChiUi 


Ke tak 


Remove 


No^ 


Poon 


Repay 


Huan^ ch'ien^ 


Oon gan 



)6 


COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Repair 


Hsiy} 


Saw 


Repent 


Hou^ hui^ 


Tszefooy 


Report 


Pao* kao^ shu^ 


Fung man 


Reprove 


Ch'ien* tsS^ 


Chak 


Restrain 


Chih^chih^ 


Kuy chuk 


RetaU 


Ling^ mat* 


Ling suy mat mat 


Return 


Hui^-lai 


Ooy loy 


Reveng* 


Ch'ou^ hin*' 


Pow chaw 


Reward 


Pao*-ying 


Sheong kap 


Rhubarb 


Tai* huang^ 


Tai wong 


Rice 


Tao^-tzu 


Met 


Rich 


Fu* yu^ 


Foo kwei 


Ride 


Ch'P 


Kay 


Right (hand) 


Yu* shou^ 


Yaw shaw 


Right (just) 


Tui*-lo 


Ying koy 


Ring (finger) 


Liu^-tzu 


Kai che 


Ring (v.) 


En'' 


Gow 


Ripe 


ShouUo 


Shuk 


Rise 


Ch'P-lai 


He shun 


Risk 


Wei"- hai* 


Heem chung tsow 


River 


Ho^ 


Hoy 


Roast 


K'as^ 


Shew 


Roll (up) 


Kun^ 


Kune 


Roof 


Fang^ ting* 


Ok pooy 


Room 


Wu^-tzu 


Yat tso law 


Roof 


FangHin^ 


Kan 


Root 


KenHzu 


Kan 


Rope 


Sheng^-tzu 


Lam 


Rose 


Mei^-kuei hua^ 


Mooy kwei fa 


Rotten 


Fu^ pai*-lo 


Kow muk 


Rough 


Ma^-cha 


Hat 


Round 


Yuan* 


Une 





VOCABULARY 




English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Row (a boat) 


Tang* ch'una^ 


Chaou sam pon 


Rub 


Ts'a^ 


Cha 


Run 


P'ao^ 


Paou 


Rust 


Hsiu* 


Teet saw 


Sacrifice 


S 
Chi^-ssu 


Tsei shin 


Saddle (n.) 


Afi^-tzu 


Ma oan 


Sail (n.) 


P'eng^ 


Fung pung 


. Sailor 


ShuP-shou 


Shuy shaw 


Salt 


Pai^-yen^ 


Eem 


Same 


T'ung^ 


E kaw 


Sand 


Sha^-tzu 


Sha 


Sandal 


Ts'ao^ kua^-ta 'rh 


Tsaw hat 


Sash 


Ta^-po 


Yew tai 


Satisfied 


Hsifi^ tsu^-lo 


Eem tsur 


Save 


Chm* chi* 


Kaw 


Saw 


Chu* 


Kuy 


Say 


Shuo^ 


Wa 


School 


Hsueh^ hsiao* 


Hok koon 


Scissors 


Chien^-tzn 


Kaou tseen 


Scrape (v.) 


Kua^ 


Kwat 


Scratch (v.) 


Chua ^ 


Sow 


Screw 


Lo^-ssu ting*-Srh 


Lo sze 


Scroll 


T'iao^-shan 


Kune shu 


Scrub 


Shua^-hsi shua^-hsi 


Tarn 


Sea 


Hai^ 


Hoy 


Seal 


Y0 hsi^ 


Yin 


Second 


Ti* Srh* 


Tei ee 


Secret 


ChP-mi 


Mat sze 


Secure 


Chieh^-shih 


Tarn pow 


See 


Ch'iao^ 


Keen 



m 



)8 


COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Seed 


Ta^ tzu^ 'rh 


Chung 


Seek 


Chao^ 


Tsam 


Seize 


Pu^ huo* 


Na wok 


Seldom 


Shao^ 


Now ke ho 


Selfish 


Tzu^ kul^ tzii^ 


Sze sum 


SeU 


Mai^ 


Fat mai 


Send 


Sung* 


Ke 


Separate (v.) 


Li^-k'ai 


Fun peet 


Servant 


Hsia* jen^ 


Kan pan 


Set (n.) 


P fen* 


Yat foo 


Settle (v.) 


Ting*-kuei 


Tsing 


Several 


Chi^-ko 


Show 


Sew 


Fing^ 


Pow Ltme 


Shade 


Yin^ Uang^-'rh 


Chay yam 


Shadow 


Ying^-erh 


Yeng 


Shake 


Yao^-huang 


Yew hmg 


Shallow 


Ch'ten^ 


Tseen 


Shape 


Hsing^-hsiang 


Mow yang 


Share 


P fen^-erh 


Yat koo 


Shark 


Sha^ yii^ 


Sha u 


Sharp 


K'uai* 


Le 


Shave 


Kua^ lien 


Tei soo 


Sheep 


Yang^ 


Yaong 


Sheet 


Pei* tan^ 'rh 


Pe tan 


Shelf 


Tiao* pan^-erh 


Kak 


SheU 


K'o^-erh 


Hoak 


Shew 


Kei^-ch'iao^ 


Pe . . . tei 


Ship 


Ch'uan^ 


Shune 


Shirt 


Han* shan^ 


Hoan sham 


Shoe 


Hsieh^ 


Hai 


Shop 


P'uUzu 


Yaong fo pow 


Short 


Tuan^ 


Tune 





VOCABULARY 




English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Shoulder 


Chien^ pang^-erh 


Pok taw 


Shove 


Tui^ 


Tuy 


Shut 


Kuari^ 


Shan 


Sick 


Ping*-lo 


Yaw peng 


Side 


Pien^ 


Peen 


Silk 


Ssu^ 


Sze 


Silver 


Yin^ 


Gan 


Sing 


Ch'ang* 


Cheong 


Sink (v.) 


Ch'en^ hsia-ch'U 


Cham 


Sister 


Chieh^-chieh 


A tsay 


Sit (V.) 


Tso* 


Tso 


Skin 


P'i^ 


Pe 


Sky 


T'ien^ 


Tsong teen 


Slave 


Nu^-ts'ai 


Now 


Sleep 


Shui^ 


Fun 


Sleeve 


Hsiu^-tzu 


Sham tsaw 


Slip 


Shih} ts'o^ 


Shat keok 


Slow 


Man* 


Che man 


Small 


Hsiao^ 


Sew 


Smell 


Win^-i-wen 


Man tsuy 


Smoke 


Yen^ 


Een 


Smooth 


P'ing^ mien* 'rh 


Wat lat 


Snail 


Shui^ niu^-erh 


Wo gaw 


Snake 


Ch'ang^-ch'ung 


Shay 


Snatch 


To^-kuo-na 


Pat huy 


Sneeze 


Ta^ t'i*-p'en 


Pun pe 


Snow 


Hsiieh^ 


Sut 


Snore 


Ta^ hu^ 


Chay pe hoan^ 


Soap 


P-tzu 


Kan sha 


Soft 


Juan^ 


Une 


Soldier 


Ping^-ting 


Ping ting 


Solemn 


HSn^ chSng*-chung 


Wei ee eem suk 



99 



100 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Some 


Hsieh}-ko 


Ke 


Son 


ErhUzu 


Ee tsze 


Soon 


K'uai^ 


At peen 


Sort 


Yang^-tzU 


Yaong 


Soul 


Ling^ hun 


Ling wan 


Sound 


Sheng^-yin 


Yam 


Soup 


T'ang^ 


Tong 


Sour 


Suan^ 


Sune 


South 


Nan^ 


Nam 


Speak 


Shuo^ 


Kong 


Spend 


Fei* 


Shei tseen 


Spider 


Chu^-chu 


Che dm 


Spit 


Ts'ui* t'u^-mo 


Tow gaw shuy 


Spoil 


Nung^ huai^-lo 


Wai 


Sponge 


HaP mo^-tzU 


Shuy pow 


Spoon 


Ch'ih^-tzU . 


Kang 


Spot 


P tien^ 


Yin tsik 


Square 


Fang^-ti 


Fang 


Squeeze 


Chi^ 


Lak sok 


Squirrel 


Hui^ shu^ 


Sung shu 


Stable 


Ma^ hao^ 


Ma fong 


Stain 


Wu^ tien^ 


Yin tsik 


Stand 


Chan^ chu* 


Ke 


Star 


Hsing^-hsing 


Sing 


Startle (v.) 


Hsia* 


Ta keng 


Steal 


T'ou^ 


Taw seet 


Steel 


Kang^ 


Kong 


Step (n.) 


Chieh}- chiao^ sMh^ 


Yat kap 


Sting 


K'u^ t'ung* 


Teng 


Stocking 


Wa^-tzu 


Mat 


Stone 


Shih^-t'ou 


Shek 


Stop 


Chan*-chu-pa 


Tang ha 





VOCABULARY 


J 


English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Storm 


Pao^feng^ 


Fung u tai tsok 


Straight 


Chih^ 


Chik 


Straw 


Kan^ ts'ao* 


Seen 


Street 


Chieh^ 


Kai 


Strike (v.) 


Ta^ 


Ta 


String 


Shing^-tzu 


Seen 


Strong 


Yu^ chin*' 'rh 


Yaw lik 


Suck (v.) 


Tsai 


Chuet 


Suddenly 


Leng^-ku ting^-ti 


Wat een 


Sugar 


T'ang^ 


Tong 


Summer 


Hsia*-t'ien 


Ha teen 


Sun 


T'ai^-yang 


Yat taw 


Supper 


Wan^fan* 


Man tsan 


Support 


Pu^ chu* 


Foo che 


Surround 


Wei^-chu 


Chaw wet 


Swear (v.) 


Shuo^ ma* hua* 'rh 


Fat shei 


Sweep (v.) 


Sao^ 


Sow 


Sword 


Tao^ 


Keen 


Syrup 


T'ang^-shui 


Tong shuy 


Table 


T 

Cho^-tzu 


Toy 


Tail 


P-pa 


Me 


Tailor 


Ts'ai^-feng 


Tsoy fung 


Take (v.) 


Pa* 


Shaw huy 


Tall 


Kao"^ 


Kow tai 


Taste 


Ch'ang^-i-ch'ang 


Me tow 


Tax 


Na* shut 


Tseen leong 


Tea 


Ch'a^ 


Cha 


Teach 


Chiao^ 


Kaou 


Teacup 


Ch'a^ wan'* 


Cha Chung 


Teapot 


Ch'a^ hu^ 


Cha 00 



101 



102 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Tear (v.) 


Ssu"- 


Mak leet 


Tell 


Kao*-ssii 


Kow so 


Thank 


Hsieh^ 


Tsay 


Thick 


Hou* 


Haw 


Thief 


Tsei^ 


Tsak 


Thigh 


Ta^ t'ui^ 


Tai pe 


Thin 


Pao^ 


Pok 


Thing 


Tung^-hsi 


Mat keen 


Think 


Hsiang^ 


Sze seong 


Thirsty 


K'o^-lo 


Hoat 


Thread 


Hsien* 


Seen 


Throat 


Sang^-tzu 


Haw lung 


Throw 


Jeng^ 


Pek 


Thumb 


Ta^-mu chih^-t'ou 


Shaw che kung 


Thunder 


Ta^ lei^ 


Luy 


Tide 


Ch'ao^ 


Shuy tai 


Tie (v.) 


Chieh^ 


Pong kan 


Tiger 


Lao^-hu 


Foo 


Time 


Shih^-hou'rh 


She how 


Tin 


Ma^ k'ou^ t'ieh^ 


Sek 


Tired 


Lei^-lo 


Kwan kune 


Tobacco 


Yen^ 


Een 


Toe 


Chiao^ chih^ t'ou 


Keok che 


Tomb 


FSn^ 


Fun mow 


To-morrow 


Ming^-t'ien 


Ting yai 


Tongue 


She^-t'ou 


Le taw 


Tooth 


Ya2 


Ga 


Top 


Tou^ 


Ting 


Tortoise 


Kuei} 


Kwei 


Touch (v.) 


X'i2 


Teem cheok 


Town 


Ch'ing^ 


Sheng 


Trade 


Shang^ yeh*' 


Tsow shang ee 





VOCABULARY 


103 


English. 


Pekingese. 


Cantonese. 


Translate 


T'ung^ i^ 


Fan yik 


Tree 


Shu'' 


Shu 


Tremble (v.) 


Chin*' tung^ 


Ta chun 


Trouble 


Fin^ i* 


Kan foo 


Trousers 


K'u^-izu 


Yat tew foo 


True 


Chen^ 


Chan 


Try (V.) 


Shih'^-i-sMh 


She yat she 


Tube 


Kuan^-tzu 


Koon 


Turn (v.) 


Chuan^ 


Chune 


Twice 


Liang^ tz'ii* 


Leong ooy 


Twist (v.) 


Ning^ 

U 


Naw mat 


Ugly 


Ch'ou^ 


Chaw 


Umbrella 


San^ 


U chay 


Uncle 


Ta^-yeh 


A pak 


Under 


Hsia^ 


Ha tel 


Understand (v.) 


Tung^-ti 


Ooy 


United 


T'ung^ shing^ V- 
ch'i* 


Lap mat 


Upon 


Shang*-t'ou 


Tsoy sheong meen 


Upright 


Chih^ 


Chik lap 


Upside down 


Fan^ hsiang^ 


Teen tow 


Urn 


Tieh^ 


Tap 


Use (v.) 


Yung*' 


Yung check 


Utensil 


Tung^-hsi 
V 


Kafo 


Valley 


Shan^ ku^ 


Shan kuk 


Value 


Kuei* chung* ti^ 


Chik 


Vase 


P'ing^ 


Peng 


Veal 


Hsiao^ niu^ 'rh joW 


* Gaw tsei 



104 



COLLOQUIAL CHINESE 



English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Verandah 


Ch'uan^-lang 


Teen toy 


Very 


Hen^ 


Shat shaw 


Victory 


Sheng* 


Shing 


Village 


Ts'un^-chuang-rh 


Heong ha 


Vinegar 


Ts'u* 


Tsow 


Virtue 


T^ 


Tar hang 


Visit (v.) 


Fai'^ 


Pai hak 


Voice 


Sheng^-yin 


Sheng he 


Vonxit (v.) 


Ou^ t'u^ 


Aw 


Voyage 


Hang^ hai^ 


Yat shuy 


Vulgar 


W 


Tsok 


Wages 


Kung^-ch'ien 


Kung tseen 


Waistcoat 


K'an^ chien^ 'rh 


Pooy sum 


Wait 


Teng^ 


Tang ha 


Wake 


Hsing^-lo 


Seng 


Walk 


Tsou^ 


Tsaw low 


Wall 


Ch'iang^ 


Tseong 


Want (v.) 


Yao* 


Yew 


War 


Chan* chSng^ 


Ta cheong 


Warm 


Nu'an^-ho 


Nunc 


Wash 


Hsi^ 


Set 


Watch (n.) 


Piao^ 


Pew 


Water 


Shui^ 


Shuy 


Way 


Tao*-Srh 


Low 


Wax 


La* 


Lap 


Weak 


Juan^ 


Yok 


Weary 


LeiUo 


Kune 


Weather 


Ch'i* hou* 


Teen he 


Weep 


K'u^ 


Tik chut gan luy 
lok loy 





VOCABULARY 




English 


Pekingese 


Cantonese 


Weigh 


Yao^-i-yao^ 


Ching 


West 


Hsi"^ 


Set 


Wet 


Shih^-lo 


Shap 


What? 


Shen^-mo 


Mat yay 


Wheat 


Mai^-tzU 


Mak 


Wheel 


Lun^-tzi* 


Lun 


When 


To^-tsan 


Ke she 


Where 


Na^-'rh 


Peen chu 


Which 


Na^-ko 


Peen ko 


White 


Pai^ 


Par shik 


Who 


Shui^ 


Shuy 


Whole 


Ch'iian^ 


Yat tsung 


Why 


Ho^ ku* 


Wei ho 


Widow 


Kiid^-ju 


Kwa foo 


Wife 


Fu* jen 


Tsei tsze 


Win 


Sheng' li* 


Yeng 


Wmd 


Feng^ 


Fung 


Window 


Ch'uang^-hu 


Cheong moon 


Wine 


Chiu^ 


Tsaw 


Winter 


Tung^-t'ien 


Tung teen 


Wipe 


Ts'a} 


Moot 


Wish 


Hsin^ yiian* 


Seong tak 


With 


Ken^ 


Kung 


Without (not 


Mei^-yu 


Mow 


having 






Wolf 


Lang^ 


Shai long 


Woman 


Nw^-jin 


Nuy yun 


Wool 


Yang^ mao 


Yaong mow 


Wood 


Mu^-t'ou 


Muk 


Work 


Huo^ 


Kung foo 


World 


Ti^ ch'iu^ 


Teen ha 


Worm 


Ch'ung^-tzii 


Wong hune 



106 



106 

English 


Pekingese 


Cantones] 


Wrap <v.) 


Pao^-ch' i-lai 


Chat chu 


Wrist 


Shou^ wan*-tzu 


Ak 


Write (v.) 


Hsieh^ 


Say 


Wrong 


Ts'oUo 

Y 


Yaw tso 


Year 


Nien- 


Neen 


Yellow 


Huang^ 


Wong shik 


Yes 


ShihUi 


Hei 


Yesterday 


Tso^-t'ien 


Tsok yat 


Yet 


Jan^-irh 


Tsang 


Young 


Nien^ ch'ing^ 


Shew neen 


Your 


NiUi 


Ne-te 



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